The "Big 4" the the Paris tranquility Conference the 1919 were (left to right) Lloyd George that England, Orlando that Italy, Clemenceau that France, and also Woodrow Wilson of the unified States.

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As the war attracted to a close, Woodrow Wilson collection forth his setup for a "just peace." Wilson thought that an essential flaws in global relations developed an unhealthy climate that led inexorably come the civilization War. His Fourteen points outlined his vision because that a safer world. Wilson referred to as for an end to secret diplomacy, a palliation of armaments, and also freedom that the seas. He asserted that reductions to profession barriers, fair adjustment the colonies, and respect for national self-determination would minimize economic and also nationalist sentiments that bring about war. Finally, Wilson suggest an worldwide organization making up representatives of all the world"s countries that would certainly serve as a forum against allowing any conflict come escalate. Unfortunately, Wilson could not impose his civilization view on the victorious ally Powers. As soon as they met in Paris to hammer the end the terms of the peace, the europe leaders had actually other ideas.

The Paris peace Conference

Most that the decisions made at the Paris tranquility Conference were made through the large Four, consisting of chairman Wilson, David Lloyd George of good Britain, Georges Clemenceau the France, and also Vittorio Orlando of Italy. The European leader were not interested in a simply peace. They were interested in retribution. Over Wilson"s protests, they ignored the Fourteen point out one by one. Germany to be to recognize guilt because that the war and pay unlimited reparations. The German armed forces was reduced to a residential police force and also its are was truncated to benefit the new nations of east Europe. The territories of Alsace and also Lorraine were restored to France. German swarms were handed in trusteeship to the victorious Allies. No provisions were made come end mystery diplomacy or preserve freedom of the seas. Wilson did get approval for his proposal for a league of Nations. Dismayed by the in its entirety results, but hopeful the a solid League can prevent future wars, he changed to present the contract of Versailles to the Senate.

Defeating the league of Nations

Unfortunately because that Wilson, he was met with stiff opposition. The Republican leader that the Senate, Henry Cabot Lodge, was really suspicious that Wilson and also his treaty. Short article X the the organization of Nations required the United claims to respect the territorial integrity that member states. Although there was no requirement compelling one American explanation of war, the united States might be bound come impose an economic embargo or to sever diplomatic relations. Lodge perceived the league as a supranational federal government that would limit the power of the American federal government from determining its own affairs. Others thought the league was the kind of entangling alliance the joined States had actually avoided because George Washington"s bye Address. Lodge sabotaged the League commitment by advertising the United claims exempt from write-up X. He attached reservations, or amendments, come the treaty to this effect. Wilson, bedridden indigenous a debilitating stroke, to be unable to expropriate these changes. That asked Senate democracy to vote against the treaty of Versailles uneven the Lodge appointments were dropped. Neither side budged, and also the contract went down to defeat.

Why did the United says fail to ratify the Versailles Treaty and also join the organization of Nations? personal enmity in between Wilson and also Lodge play a part. Wilson could have prudently invite a significant Republican to accompany him to Paris to assist ensure its later on passage. Wilson"s fading health got rid of the possibility of making a strong an individual appeal on behalf of the treaty. Ethnic teams in the joined States aided its defeat. German american felt their fatherland to be being treated also harshly. Italian americans felt more territory should have actually been awarded to Italy. Ireland Americans criticize the treaty because that failing to attend to the issue of ireland independence. Diehard American isolationists worried about a permanent an international involvement. The stubborness of chairman Wilson led him come ask his very own party come scuttle the treaty. The final results of all these factors had mammoth longterm consequences. Without the authorized of the world"s newest superpower, the league of countries was doomed come failure. Over the next two decades, the United says would sit ~ above the sidelines as the unjust treaty of Versailles and the ineffective organization of countries would set the stage for an even bloodier, an ext devastating clash.


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Henry Cabot LodgeThe main Senate story of Henry Cabot Lodge that led the congressional opposition come the league of Nations.

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Wilson and the league of Nations
In 22 days president Wilson traveled 8000 miles throughout the unified States and gave 38 speeches in assistance of the league of Nations, and also the gruelling speed brought around a paralyzing stroke.

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Listen together Henry Cabot Lodge provides his case against Woodrow Wilson"s organization of Nations, right here as a RealAudio or wav file.Learn More...

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