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Born:384 BCEancient GreeceGreece...(Show more)Died:322 BCEChalcisGreece...(Show more)Founder:Lyceum...(Show more)Notable Works:“Categories”“Eudemian Ethics”“History the Animals”“Metaphysica”“Nicomachean Ethics”“Ode come Virtue”“On Generation and also Corruption”“On Interpretation”“On the Generation the Animals”“On the Heavens”“On the parts of Animals”“On the Soul”“Organon”“Physics”“Poetics”“Politics”“Posterior Analytics”“Prior Analytics”“Protrepticus”“Rhetoric”“Sophistical Refutations”“Topics”...(Show more)Subjects the Study:biologyGolden Meanekthesishylomorphismnous...(Show more)
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Top Questions
What walk Aristotle do?

Aristotle was among the best philosophers who ever lived and also the first genuine scientist in history. That made pioneering contribute to all fields of philosophy and also science, he developed the field of official logic, and also he determined the various scientific disciplines and also explored their relationship to every other. Aristotle was also a teacher and founded his own school in Athens, known as the Lyceum.

Read much more below: Doctrines
Formal logic
Learn an ext about official logic.
Where did Aristotle live?

After his dad died around 367 BCE, Aristotle journeyed to Athens, wherein he joined the Academy that Plato. The left the Academy top top Plato’s death about 348, travel to the northwestern shore of present-day Turkey. He lived there and also on the island the Lésbos till 343 or 342, when King Philip II the Macedonia summoned him come the Macedonian capital, Pella, come act together tutor come Philip’s young teenage son, Alexander, which the did for two or 3 years. Aristotle presumably live somewhere in Macedonia until his (second) come in Athens in 335. In 323 hostility towards Macedonians in Athens prompted Aristotle come flee come the island of Euboea, where he passed away the adhering to year.

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Alexander the Great
Read much more about Alexander the Great, a college student of Aristotle.
Who were Aristotle’s teachers and students?

Aristotle’s most famous teacher to be Plato (c. 428–c. 348 BCE), who himself had actually been a student of Socrates (c. 470–399 BCE). Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, whose lifetimes extended a period of only about 150 years, remain among the most crucial figures in the history of west philosophy. Aristotle’s most famed student was Philip II’s son Alexander, later to be known as Alexander the Great, a armed forces genius that eventually overcame the entire Greek world and North Africa and the center East. Aristotle’s most vital philosophical student was more than likely Theophrastus, who came to be head of the Lyceum about 323.

Read an ext below: Life: The Lyceum
Learn more about Aristotle’s student Theophrastus.
How plenty of works did Aristotle write?

Aristotle composed as plenty of as 200 treatises and also other works extending all areas of philosophy and science. That those, no one survives in perfect form. The about 30 works through which his thought was conveyed to later on centuries covers lecture notes (by Aristotle or his students) and also draft manuscripts edited by ancient scholars, notably Andronicus of Rhodes, the critical head the the Lyceum, that arranged, edited, and also published Aristotle’s extant works in Rome about 60 BCE. The normally abbreviated format of these writings provides them an overwhelming to read, even for philosophers.

Read an ext below: Writings
Andronicus of Rhodes
Learn an ext about Andronicus that Rhodes.
How go Aristotle influence subsequent philosophy and also science?

Aristotle’s believed was original, profound, wide-ranging, and systematic. It eventually became the intellectual structure of western Scholasticism, the mechanism of philosophical assumptions and problems characteristics of ideology in west Europe during the middle Ages. In the 13th century St. Cutting board Aquinas carried out to convey Aristotelian philosophy and science with Christian dogma, and also through the the theology and also intellectual worldview the the roman inn Catholic Church became Aristotelian. Due to the fact that the mid-20th century, Aristotle’s principles has inspired the ar of virtue theory, method to values that emphasizes person well-being and also the advancement of character. Aristotle’s thought likewise constitutes an essential current in other areas of contemporary philosophy, particularly metaphysics, political philosophy, and also the approach of science.

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St. Thomas Aquinas
Learn an ext about St. Thomas Aquinas.

Aristotle, Greek Aristoteles, (born 384 bce, Stagira, Chalcidice, Greece—died 322, Chalcis, Euboea), ancient Greek philosopher and also scientist, one of the biggest intellectual numbers of western history. He to be the author of a philosophical and also scientific device that ended up being the framework and vehicle because that both Christian Scholasticism and also medieval Islamic philosophy. Even after the intellectual revolutions the the Renaissance, the Reformation, and also the Enlightenment, Aristotelian concepts remained embedded in western thinking.

Aristotle’s intellectual variety was vast, covering most of the sciences and many of the arts, consisting of biology, botany, chemistry, ethics, history, logic, metaphysics, rhetoric, philosophy of mind, ideology of science, physics, poetics, political theory, psychology, and zoology. He to be the founder of official logic, devising for it a finished device that for centuries was regarded as the sum of the discipline; and also he pioneered the examine of zoology, both observational and also theoretical, in which few of his job-related remained unsurpassed till the 19th century. However he is, of course, most outstanding as a philosopher. His writings in ethics and political theory and also in metaphysics and the viewpoint of science proceed to it is in studied, and also his work-related remains a powerful current in contemporary philosophical debate.

This short article deals through Aristotle’s life and also thought. Because that the later development of Aristotelian philosophy, see Aristotelianism. For therapy of Aristotelianism in the full context of west philosophy, see philosophy, Western.


The Academy

Aristotle was born ~ above the Chalcidic peninsula the Macedonia, in north Greece. His father, Nicomachus, to be the doctor of Amyntas III (reigned c. 393–c. 370 bce), king the Macedonia and grandfather that Alexander the an excellent (reigned 336–323 bce). After his father’s death in 367, Aristotle moved to Athens, whereby he join the Academy the Plato (c. 428–c. 348 bce). He remained there for twenty years as Plato’s pupil and colleague.

Many that Plato’s later on dialogues date from this decades, and also they may reflect Aristotle’s contribute to philosophical controversy at the Academy. Some of Aristotle’s writings also belong to this period, though mainly they survive only in fragments. Prefer his master, Aristotle wrote at first in conversation form, and also his early principles show a strong Platonic influence. His dialogue Eudemus, for example, mirrors the Platonic see of the heart as imprisoned in the body and as qualified of a more happiness life only once the body has been left behind. Follow to Aristotle, the dead are much more blessed and happier 보다 the living, and to die is to go back to one’s genuine home.

Another youthful work, the Protrepticus (“Exhortation”), has actually been rebuilded by contemporary scholars from quotations in miscellaneous works from so late antiquity. Everyone must do philosophy, Aristotle claims, due to the fact that even arguing against the exercise of approach is itself a type of philosophizing. The best kind of ideology is the contemplation of the cosmos of nature; that is for this objective that God made human beings and also gave castle a godlike intellect. Every else—strength, beauty, power, and honour—is worthless.

It is feasible that two of Aristotle’s surviving works top top logic and also disputation, the Topics and also the Sophistical Refutations, belong come this early period. The previous demonstrates how to construct disagreements for a position one has currently decided come adopt; the last shows exactly how to detect weakness in the debates of others. Although no work amounts to a methodical treatise on official logic, Aristotle can justly say, at the end of the Sophistical Refutations, the he has invented the technique of logic—nothing at every existed when he started.

During Aristotle’s residence in ~ the Academy, King Philip II that Macedonia (reigned 359–336 bce) waged war on a number of Greek city-states. The Athenians safeguarded their independence only half-heartedly, and, after a series of humiliating concessions, they enabled Philip to become, by 338, understand of the Greek world. It cannot have been an easy time to be a Macedonian residents in Athens.

Within the Academy, however, relationships seem to have remained cordial. Aristotle always acknowledged a an excellent debt to Plato; he took a large part the his philosophical agenda native Plato, and also his to teach is an ext often a alteration than a repudiation the Plato’s doctrines. Already, however, Aristotle was start to street himself native Plato’s theory of Forms, or principles (eidos; see form). (The native Form, when offered to refer to develops as Plato conceived them, is often capitalized in the academic literature; when offered to refer to forms as Aristotle conceived them, it is conventionally lowercased.) Plato had held that, in addition to specific things, over there exists a suprasensible kingdom of Forms, which room immutable and everlasting. This realm, that maintained, makes specific things easy to understand by bookkeeping for their common natures: a thing is a horse, for example, by virtue the the reality that it shares in, or imitates, the kind of “Horse.” In a lost work, On Ideas, Aristotle maintains that the arguments of Plato’s central dialogues establish only the there are, in addition to particulars, specific common objects that the sciences. In his making it through works together well, Aristotle frequently takes concern with the concept of Forms, periodically politely and also sometimes contemptuously. In his Metaphysics he suggests that the theory falls short to settle the difficulties it was expected to address. The does not confer intelligibility ~ above particulars, due to the fact that immutable and also everlasting creates cannot describe how particulars come into existence and also undergo change. Every the concept does, according to Aristotle, is introduce brand-new entities equal in number come the reality to it is in explained—as if one could solve a problem by copy it. (See below Form.)


When Plato died about 348, his nephew Speusippus became head the the Academy, and also Aristotle left Athens. He moved to Assus, a city top top the northwestern coastline of Anatolia (in present-day Turkey), where Hermias, a graduate of the Academy, was ruler. Aristotle ended up being a close friend of Hermias and also eventually married his ward Pythias. Aristotle assisted Hermias come negotiate one alliance with Macedonia, i beg your pardon angered the Persian king, who had Hermias treacherously arrested and put to death about 341. Aristotle saluted Hermias’s storage in “Ode to Virtue,” his only surviving poem.

While in Assus and during the subsequent few years when he stayed in the city the Mytilene on the island the Lesbos, Aristotle carried out extensive scientific research, an especially in zoology and also marine biology. This job-related was summarized in a publication later known, misleadingly, as The history of Animals, to which Aristotle added two short treatises, On the parts of Animals and also On the Generation the Animals. Return Aristotle go not claim to have started the scientific research of zoology, his detailed observations the a wide range of biology were rather without precedent. He—or among his study assistants—must have been gifted v remarkably acute eyesight, due to the fact that some that the attributes of insects the he accurately reports were not again observed till the invention of the microscopic lense in the 17th century.

The limit of Aristotle’s scientific research is astonishing. Much of the is involved with the category of pets into genus and also species; an ext than 500 species figure in his treatises, many of them explained in detail. The myriad item of information around the anatomy, diet, habitat, settings of copulation, and reproductive equipment of mammals, reptiles, fish, and insects space a melange of minute investigation and also vestiges the superstition. In some cases his i can not qualify stories about rare types of fish were showed accurate plenty of centuries later. In other places he states plainly and reasonably a organic problem the took millennia to solve, such together the nature of embryonic development.

Despite an admixture the the fabulous, Aristotle’s organic works must be regarded as a stupendous achievement. His inquiries were performed in a genuinely scientific spirit, and he was always ready to confess ignorance where proof was insufficient. Whenever there is a conflict between theory and also observation, one should trust observation, that insisted, and also theories are to be trusted just if their outcomes conform with the observed phenomena.

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In 343 or 342 Aristotle to be summoned by Philip II to the Macedonian resources at Pella come act together tutor come Philip’s 13-year-old son, the future Alexander the Great. Small is recognized of the content of Aristotle’s instruction; return the Rhetoric to Alexander was included in the Aristotelian corpus for centuries, that is now typically regarded together a forgery. By 326 Alexander had actually made himself master of realm that stretched from the Danube to the Indus and also included Libya and also Egypt. Old sources report that throughout his campaigns Alexander arranged for organic specimens to be sent to his tutor from all parts of Greece and also Asia Minor.