Which arteries branch off the arcuate arteries?a.) segmental arteries b.) renal arteries c.) cortical radiate arteries d.) interlobar arteries
Which vessels are many intimate with the nephron loop and also serve as a suggest to collect ions and water ago into the blood?a.) vasa recta b.) cortical radiate veins c.) afferent arterioles d.) efferent arterioles
A (The vasa recta space intimate through the nephron loop and serve as a allude to collection ions and also water back into the blood.)
Which vessels it is provided the cortical tissue of the kidney through blood?a.) cortical radiate arteries b.) interlobar arteries c.) segmental arteries d.) arcuate arteries
Which the the complying with is no a duty of the kidneys?a.) to control body fluid by controlling excretion indigenous sweat glandsb.) to keep the ideal balance in between water and also salts and also between acids and also basesc.) come metabolize vitamin D to its active formd.) to bring out gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting
A (to control body liquid by controlling excretion from sweat glands. The kidneys have no regulate over excretion at the level that sweat glands.)
Which explain does not accurately describe the renal gun anatomy?a.) The an are where blood vessels and also nerves get in the kidney is referred to as the hilum.b.) The kidneys have partial protection from the rib cage.c.) The left kidney is reduced in position due to the fact that of crowding by the liver.d.) The fibrous capsule prevents infections from spreading away from the kidney.

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C (The left kidney is reduced in position because of crowding by the liver is INcorrect because it is the ideal kidney that is position slightly lower since of crowding by the liver.)
The __________ collect(s) urine, i m sorry drains repetitively from the papillae; the pee is then emptied into the __________.a.) renal pyramids; calycesb.) calyces; renal pelvisc.) renal pyramids; renal pelvisd.) renal pelvis; calyces
B (calyces; renal pelvis. Formed urine enters right into the renal calyces and then the renal pelvis before entering the ureter.)
Hydronephrosis may be brought about by all except which that the following?a.) renal ptosisb.) kidney stones lodged in a ureterc.) renal failured.) tumor in a ureter
C (renal failure. Renal fail is characterized by a significant decrease in urine output due to damages to the nephron.)
Identify the exactly direction the urine circulation from formation to exiting the kidney. (using: medula, ureter, cortex, and also pelvis)
renal corpuscle (The renal corpuscle is one interface between the blood supply and also the kidney. It is composed of the glomerulus, i m sorry is a capillary bed, and also the glomerular (bowman"s) capsule, i m sorry is component of the nephron. Filtration is the departure of little substances indigenous the blood in the glomerulus right into the glomerular capsule that the nephron.)
Where walk the efferent arteriole that the juxtamedullary nephron bring blood to?a.) glomerulus b.) peritubular capillaries c.) afferent arteriole d.) vasa recta
D (vasa recta. The efferent arteriole of the juxtamedullary nephron dead blood to the vasa recta.)
Which capillary bed produce filtrate?a.) glomerulus b.) vasa recta c.) juxtaglomerular complicated (JGC) d.) peritubular capillaries
A (glomerulus. The glomerulosa (capillary bed) in the glomerular capsule to produce filtrate as result of the high fluid pressure in ~ the vessels.)
What is the role of the macula densa cell of the juxtaglomerular complex (JGC)?a.) production of filtrate b.) surveillance the NaCl content of the filtrate c.) passing regulatory signals in between other cell of the juxtaglomerular complex d.) sensing blood push in the afferent arteriole
B (monitoring the NaCl content of the filtrate . The macula densa cell monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate start the distal convoluted tubule.)
Which cells of the juxtaglomerular complex secrete renin?a.) glomerular mesangial cell b.) extraglomerular mesangial cell c.) macula densa cell d.) granular cells
D (granular cells. Granular cells space mechanoreceptors that feeling blood pressure in the afferent arterioles. They secrete renin when the blood push drops and are vital part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone regulatory pathway.)
Which of this cells is situated interspersed in between the capillaries the the glomerulus?a.) macula densa cell b.) proximal tubule cells c.) glomerular mesangial cell d.) extraglomerular mesangial cells
C (glomerular mesangial cells. Glomerular mesangial cells cover few of the glomerular capillaries and role in filtration and also support.)
Which that the following is no a major urine development process?a.) glomerular filtrationb.) tubular reabsorptionc.) micturitiond.) tubular secretion
C (micturition. Micturition is the procedure of urinating, release stored to pee after the is formed.)
Which the the complying with processes would be thought about as a secretory quite than one excretory activity?a.) sweat removed by the skinb.) feces elimination by the colonc.) carbon dioxide removal by the lungsd.) aldosterone relax by the adrenal glands
What is the chief force pushing water and also solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane the the glomerulus?a.) colloid osmotic pressure in glomerular capillaries (OPgc) b.) colloid osmotic press in the capsular space c.) hydrostatic push in glomerular capillaries (HPgc) d.) hydrostatic push in the capsular space (HPcs)
C (hydrostatic press in glomerular capillaries (HPgc) . While diffusion rates are affected an ext by osmotic differences and also concentration gradients, hydrostatic push in glomerular capillaries (HPgc) is the chief an approach of forcing water and also solutes through filtration.)
Net filtration press is calculation by individually the inward pressures from the external pressures: (HPgc) - (HPcs + OPgc).
Suppose that a patient has a failing liver and also is can not to make normal levels of albumin for the blood plasma. If every other components remain the same, what would certainly be the result on the amount of filtrate produced?a.) Filtrate production would continue to be the same. B.) Filtrate manufacturing would decrease. C.) Filtrate manufacturing would increase.

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C (filtrate production would increase. If the liver to be making poor levels of albumin, i beg your pardon is the most necessary contributor to the blood"s osmotic pressure, the blood"s osmotic press would drop, leading to a increase in filtrate production.)
Capsular hydrostatic pressure is the chief force pushing water and also solutes the end of the blood and throughout the filtration membrane. T/F?
false (The network filtration press (NFP), responsible because that filtrate formation, entails forces acting at the glomerular bed. Glomerular hydrostatic pressure, i m sorry is basically glomerular blood pressure, is the chief pressure pushing water and also solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane.)
The rate of kidney filtrate development would typically be dependency upon every one of the following factors except __________.a.) systemic blood pressureb.) filtration membrane integrityc.) blood calcium leveld.) renal artery/arteriole diameters
When provided to a patient, i beg your pardon of the following substances would rise his or she urinary output?a.) intravenous salineb.) antidiuretic hormonec.) aldosteroned.) albumin
What hormone promotes active tubular cheap of potassium ions into, together with sodium reabsorption from, filtrate in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting ducts?a.) aldosterone b.) parathyroid hormone (PTH) c.) atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)d.) antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
A (aldosterone. Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex promotes active tubular secretion of potassium ions in the so late distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting ducts. That is secreted in indirect response to action of the juxtaglomerular complex.)
What area the the nephron is responsible because that the reabsorption of most of the water native the filtrate and most nutrients?a.) proximal convoluted tubule b.) collecting duct c.) distal convoluted tubule d.) to decrease nephron loop
A (proximal convoluted tubule. Many of the water native the filtrate as well as most nutrients room reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule.)
In what component of the renal tubule walk parathyroid hormone (PTH) encourage the reabsorption of calcium ions?a.) descending limb of the nephron loop b.) proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) c.) distal convoluted tubule (DCT) d.) collecting duct
C (distal convoluted tubule (DCT) Parathyroid hormone (PTH) promotes the reabsorption of calcium ion in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT).)
Where in the nephron does many solute reabsorption occur?a.) collecting ductb.) distal convoluted tubulec.) glomerulusd.) proximal convoluted tubule
Approximately 80% that the energy used for energetic transport is devoted to the reabsorption of __________.a.) waterb.) glucosec.) potassiumd.) sodium
D (sodium. Most of the energy used because that reabsorption is provided to deliver sodium out of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). Remember: water complies with salt)
Under typical conditions, the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) reabsorbs every one of the glucose, lactate, and amino mountain in the filtrate and also 65% the the Na+ and water. T/F?
true (The PCT quickly recovers nutrients, leave the last parts of the nephron to usage the water and salt staying as a automobile for wastes, and also without having to address nutrients while making electrolyte and volume adjustments.)
Upon getting to what allude in the nephron is reabsorption (1) dependent upon the body"s demands at the time and also (2) regulated by hormones?a.) descending limb of the loop of Henleb.) ascending limb of the loop of Henlec.) proximal convoluted tubuled.) distal convoluted tubule
D (distal convoluted tubule.Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) reabsorption just occurs under the affect of hormone regulation)
false (The countercurrent multiplier functions since of two factors: (1) the descending limb of the loop that Henle is reasonably impermeable come solutes and freely permeable come water, and (2) the ascending body is permeable come solutes but not come water.)
Which hormone(s) is/are compelled for facultative water reabsorption in the collecting ducts?a.) ADHb.) reninc.) aldosteroned.) both ADH and aldosterone
Which of the adhering to promotes the formation of dilute urine?a.) enhanced osmolality that extracellular fluids b.) one increased number of aquaporins in the collecting duct c.) huge amounts that antidiuretic hormone (ADH) released from the posterior pituitary d.) reduced osmolality of extracellular fluids
D (decreased osmolality of extracellular fluids. A diminish in the osmolality that the extracellular fluids would indicate the visibility of large amounts that water in these fluids. This would consequently lead to a autumn in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release and the subsequent boost of water in the urine.)
Where does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) exert its results to encourage water reabsorption?a.) descending limb of the nephron loop b.) distal convoluted tubule (DCT) c.) ascending limb of the nephron loop d.) collecting duct
D (collecting duct. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes an increase in aquaporins in cell of the collecting duct. Much more aquaporins in the cabinet membranes reasons them to reabsorb an ext water indigenous the filtrate, and also the urine becomes much more concentrated.)
Vasa recta blood osmolality is crucial to preserving the countercurrent instrument of the nephron. Wherein is vasa recta blood osmolality the highest?a.) that is the very same throughout the nephron area. B.) in the cortex c.) in the shallow medulla d.) in the deep medulla
D (in the deep medulla. Vasa recta blood osmolality is in ~ its greatest where the filtrate and also interstitial liquid are the highest, i beg your pardon is in the deep medulla.)
External chemistry that enhance urinary output are referred to as __________.a.) secretagoguesb.) countercurrent exchangersc.) diureticsd.) countercurrent multipliers
A nonfasting pee sample indigenous an separation, personal, instance who had previously ingested donuts and a soft drink showed the presence of sugar (glucose). I m sorry of the adhering to statements defines the presence of glucose in the urine?a.) The individual exceeded the deliver maximum.b.) The individual is glucose intolerant.c.) The individual has diabetes mellitus.d.) some glucose is constantly present in the urine.
A (The individual exceeded the move maximum.. Once an individual exceeds the transport maximum for any kind of filtered substance, the substance will end up in the urine.)
Since many patients with renal fail produce tiny or no urine, hemodialysis often entails removal of water native the blood. However, side-effects may develop if too much fluid is removed from the blood. I m sorry of the following is NOT among the potential side-effects?a.) dizzinessb.) vasoconstriction the afferent arteriolesc.) short blood pressured.) muscle fatigue
B (vasoconstriction the afferent arterioles. Vasoconstriction the the afferent arterioles occurs throughout times that high systemic blood pressure. This reflexive response lowers glomerular blood pressure and helps preserve normal glomerular filtration rates.)
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