Definition: The barter system is a system of exchange, i beg your pardon was common in the civilization centuries ago, before the advent of the monetary system. In this arrangement, goods and services space traded because that goods and services. This means that the parties exchange each other’s commodity straight without any kind of mediation of money on the basis of equivalent approximates of price and goods.

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Examples that Barter System

Mangoes space exchanged for Oranges.Tea is exchanged for Salt.Shoes are exchanged for clothes.

Characteristics of Barter System

Barter mechanism is characterised by:


Mutual Benefit: In the olden job when society was not so developed and also money was no invented. The barter device acted as a classical setup through which people can obtain what castle need, by giving them some various other commodity of your need. In this way, the barter mechanism mutually services the participants.Reciprocal: In a barter system, the exchange is reciprocal, which method it is negotiated, wherein the participant get the commodity they need in ar of the commodity, lock are offering in exchange.Absence that Money: In this form of trade, no money is associated in the transaction. The barter system existed as soon as the economy was cashless, as well as there was no various other substitute setting for payment.Informal Presence: At current barter mechanism only exists in casual manner and not together an main exchange method.Bilateral or Multilateral Trade: The trade have the right to take place between two next or among multiple parties who room able to supply something i m sorry the other party is in require of.

Limitations the the Barter system

Though barter exchange is straightforward and immediate, it has particular limitations also, i m sorry are disputed hereunder:


1. Mutual simultaneously of Wants: This is just one of the most usual problems faced by human being in barter exchange. Shared coincidence pr double coincidence of wants method that if one party wants to exchange a details commodity with another party, then it is not vital that the last is also willing come exchange the commodity i beg your pardon the previous party is feather for. So, the desires of two civilization must coincide.

For Example: expect Mr Y desires a pair of shoes and he has actually 5 kg that wheat to market as consideration. In the case, he has to look for such a human being who desires 5 kg of wheat and also has a pair of shoes to offer in return.

2. Common measure up of Value: lack of a common measure of value, is another major issue in barter exchange. So, in the absence of any type of common unit the measurement, human being find it an overwhelming to estimate the true and exact value of the commodity. Hence, the commodity is measured in regards to the commodity only.

For example, there are two next a fruit seller and a carpenter, who desire to exchange fruits against the chair. So, what they must decide is what should be the relationship of the two commodities which space to it is in exchanged, i.e. How many dozens of fruit are forced to it is in exchanged for a chair? Basically, these room isolated transactions and also in the absence of any kind of common unit the measurement, the exchange is possible only in an arbitrary manner.

3. Divisibility the Goods: Some products cannot be divided into little parts/pieces, without any reduction in your actual value. This problem mainly arises once the commodity which is to be exchanged is livestock. Every the assets do no possess the exact same value.

For example, A human being wants to exchange his horse and wants 5 kg of rice. Expect 1 equine is equal to 100 kg of rice. In together a case, that is not feasible for that to division the steed into piece to obtain the rice. And also if he provides the horse against 5 kg rice, the is going come lose. So, it renders the barter mechanism inconvenient.

4. Difficulty in save on computer value: value or wealth deserve to only be stored in the form of commodities, such as food grains, cattle, fruits, vegetables, etc. Which is not feasible due come perishability, destruction in quality, room for storage and expenses top top goods.

For example: intend a person offers services to one more person for which the previous received 1 quintal wheat and 4 goats. And also the goats consumed every the wheat received by him. And after some time the goats died due to the fact that of a disease. Hence, warehouse in the kind of commodities is not at all possible.

5. Difficulty in future payment: In the lack of any type of satisfactory unit the measurement, that is a bit daunting to enter in any kind of contract which involves future payment, as the payments space to be mentioned in terms of goods and services. However, over there is the opportunity of disagreement regarding the high quality of good, a particular kind of good and readjust in the value of the good.

For example, One party listed services to an additional party, ~ above an covenant that the latter would be detailed 10 kg the rice because that that, ~ one year. The quality and value that rice might readjust in future. So, deferred payment is not at every possible.

6. Lack of Specialization: In the olden days, when the barter mechanism was prevalent in the country, human being tend to be self-sufficient, i.e. They produce the items of their require or we have the right to say they to be a jack of every trades. Hence, there to be a absence of specialization.

For example: expect a person produces all that he needs like wheat, rice, pulses, cotton, etc. Just for his own consumption and also the exchange was minimal in between people, i m sorry hampers financial growth.

7. Difficulty in transportation: as soon as goods and also services room exchanged for goods and also services, transport becomes near to impossible.

For example: expect a farmer and a carpenter, who are numerous miles far from each other wants come exchange food grains against furniture. In that situation both of them have to transport their products from one ar to another.

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The Bottom Line

An economic situation that follows direct barter of commodities is called a Barter Economy, or Commodity come Commodity (C2C Economy).