Constructive Forces, Folding, Faults, Magnitude and Effect, volcano Eruptions, Deposition the Sediment, terrible Forces, Weathering, Erosion

You might not establish it, yet the land is transforming all the time. The planet is constantly working come build new land and to wear down the old.

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Sometimes alters to the planet happen rapidly, yet other alters can take countless years!

Processes That readjust the EarthSlow ProcessesRapid Processes
ErosionVolcanic Eruptions
Deposition the SedimentLandslides

Constructive Forces

The procedures for building new land are dubbed constructive forces. Three of the main constructive forces are crustal deformation, volcano eruptions, and deposition that sediment.

Crustal deformation occurs once the shape of soil (or crust) is readjusted or deformed. Among the main reasons is movement of the Earth"s plates. As soon as the bowl collide or push toward each other, pressure builds. This can cause two things to happen. The rock deserve to either wrinkles or fault.

Lava spanning a road.


Imagine the significant force created when two of the Earth"s bowl collide! over time, the pressure can reason rock come fold. When that happens, the rock gets thrust up, and also mountains are formed.

Usually, mountains form in ranges, or groups. Several of the best-known hill ranges space the Himalayas, the Alps, and also the Andes. The Rocky hills stretch every the way from new Mexico come British Columbia, Canada. That"s about 3,000 mile (4,828 km).

View that Mt. Everest, Lhotse and also Nuptse native Kala Patthar.

Moraine Park - Rocky mountain National Park, Colorado.

The mountain Andreas Fault

The best known fault in phibìc America is the san Andreas Fault. That runs about 800 mile (1,287 km) v California. It to be responsible for among the most renowned earthquakes in history, referred to as the good San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. That earthquake and also the fires it resulted in were one of the greatest natural tragedies ever come hit the joined States.


Sometimes, as soon as plates collide, the Earth"s crust deserve to crack, or fracture. A error is formed. Follow me the crack, or error line, the absent is being pushed together. Sooner or later, the pressure has to be released. When that happens, the result is an earthquake.

A damaged structure after an earthquake.

Magnitude and also Effect

1 come 3. Can be recorded, however rarely reasons damage. Generally not feeling by humans.

3 come 6. Have the right to be feel by humans. Damage is usually minor. Some buildings can it is in affected.

6 come 9+. Can cause great damage. An earthquake through a magnitude over 6 can reason damage because that 100 mile (160 km). Anything higher than 8 can cause severe damage over an area of numerous square miles. Earthquakes end 8 just happen around once a year.

Seismograph machine.

Dr. Charles Richter realized the the shocks brought about by earthquakes might be measured. A an equipment called a seismograph measures the shock, or seismic waves. The size of one earthquake is measured indigenous 1 come 10, v 1 gift the smallest and 10 the largest.

Each number top top the Richter range represents a tenfold boost in the stamin of the earthquake. An earthquake with a size of 2 is ten times more powerful than one earthquake through a magnitude of 1.

Active, Dormant, or Extinct?


A volcano that has actually erupted in recent background or that is expected to erupt again in the close to future.


A volcano that has actually not erupted because that a really long time, but may erupt in the future.


A volcano that scientists believe will not erupt again.

Volcanic Eruptions

The vision of a hill pouring the end smoke and red warm lava is one of the many amazing in every one of nature. A volcano is an opened in the Earth"s late that allows molten rock to escape. This molten rock, or lava, cools after it escapes and becomes igneous rock.

This eruption occurs as soon as pressure pressures the release of lava indigenous a volcano.

Eruption in Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island.

Mount St. Helens venting steam.

Mount St. Helens indigenous the north Ridge.

Mount St. Helens

It started with a series of small earthquakes. They shook mountain St. Helens in Washington State for number of months. Steam began come shoot from the height of the mountain. Then, on may 18, 1980, an earthquake v a size of 5.1 brought about a fallen of the height of the mountain. Hot magma and ash began gushing out.

Before it was over, 230 square miles (596 sq km) of land were spanned in lava and also ash. Thousands and thousands of acres were destroyed. Along with thousands of forest animals and also millions of fish, 57 civilization lost their lives.

Deposition that Sediment

If you could cut right into the surface ar of the Earth, you"d find places wherein the absent is layered choose a birthday cake. These space layers that sedimentary rock, which type when rain, snow, ice, or wind carry rock particles. These particles are deposited in the water.

Over time, a procedure called lithification causes the sediment to turn into sedimentary rock.

Sedimentary rock layers.

Coastline erosion.

Destructive Forces

So far, we"ve just looked at means that floor is developed up. In bespeak for new rocks to be created, older ones need to be destroyed.

Land is damaged down by destructive forces. These forces are at occupational all the time. Because they work-related slowly, the is sometimes hard to notice their effect. There is no them, however, brand-new rock might never be formed. The 2 main disastrous forces are weathering and also erosion.


You can not think the something as harmless as the weather could failure rocks, however it does! Weathering is the breaking under of rocks v exposure come the atmosphere. There are two basic types that weathering: mechanical and chemical.

Mechanical weathering takes place when rocks are broken apart. For example, water in rocks will certainly freeze and also thaw based upon air temperatures. This reasons the water come contract and also expand, i m sorry weakens the rock. Over time, the rock division down.

Chemical weathering causes rocks to weaken. Once iron meets water it rusts. The very same thing wake up to the iron in a rock. As soon as it rusts, or oxidizes, the rock gets weaker, and also sooner or later it division down.

Iron has oxidized in this rock.


Once rocks begin to malfunction through weathering, erosion deserve to take over. Erosion is the process by which rock particles are moved. Water, wind, ice, and gravity deserve to all reason sediment come break away from rocks.

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Usually, particles move from greater places to reduced places. Heaviness can cause weathered rocks to autumn down a mountainside. Rain can wash it into a river, wherein it moves farther down still. The power of the circulation of the river can cause even much more sediment to rest off along the riverbed.