Oceania is a geographical (and geopolitical) region consisting of plenty of countries and also territories—mostly islands—in the Pacific Ocean. The specific scope the Oceania varies—some explanation include east Timor, Australia, and new Zealand; other versions exclude, them. The primary use that the term "Oceania" is to describe a continental an ar (like Europe or Africa) that lies between Asia and also the Americas, v Australia together the significant land mass. The surname "Oceania" is used, rather than "Australia," due to the fact that unlike the other continental groupings, it is the s rather than the continent that web links the countries together.
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1 Countries and also territories
Oceania is the smallest continental group in soil area and also the second smallest, after ~ Antarctica, in population.
Countries and territories
Geopolitical map the Oceania
Oceania was divided into Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia by the French explorer Jules Dumont d"Urville in 1831. This subdivision is no longer well-known as correct by many geographers and also scientists, who prefer to divide Oceania into Near Oceania and also Remote Oceania; the is quiet the most well-known subdivision, though.
Most of Oceania consists of tiny island nations. Australia is the only continental country, and also Papua brand-new Guinea and also East Timor room the only countries with floor borders, both v Indonesia.
The countries of Oceania have actually varying levels of freedom from their early american powers and have negotiated a wide range of constitutional arrangements to suit their circumstances. The complying with list includes the countries and territories that room classified as part of Oceania by UNESCO; other countries are sometimes considered part of Oceania (see various other Interpretations below).
North Pacific Ocean
South Pacific Ocean
|Map that Nations and territories that Oceania including Australia and new Zealand|
Australia is periodically not consisted of in Oceania, return a term choose the "Pacific Islands" would normally be used to explain Oceania without Australia. Hawaii and the United states territories v no indigenous population in the phibìc Pacific are periodically included, yet are usually grouped v the United claims in north America. Hawaiians room a Polynesian race. Easter Island is a Polynesian island in the eastern Pacific Ocean, part of the are of Chile, and is sometimes included in Oceania. On rare occasions, the term may be stretched even further to encompass other Pacific s island groups such as the Aleutian Islands.
Oceania is just one of eight terrestrial ecozones, i m sorry constitute the major ecological areas of the planet. The Oceania ecozone includes all of Micronesia, Fiji, and every one of Polynesia except brand-new Zealand. Brand-new Zealand, along with brand-new Guinea and adjacent islands, Australia, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and brand-new Caledonia constitute the different Australasia ecozone.
Oceania is the the smallest in area of any kind of of the ecozones, and also the youngest, geologically. Other ecozones encompass old continent land masses or pieces of continents, but Oceania is composed mainly of island groups that occurred from the sea, together a result of hotspot volcanism, or as island arcs moved upward by the collision and subduction that tectonic plates. The islands variety from tiny coral atolls to large mountainous islands, prefer Hawaii and Fiji.
The climate that Oceania"s islands is tropic or subtropical, and also ranges native humid to seasonally dry. Wetter components of the islands space covered by tropical and also subtropical moist broadleaf forests, when the drier parts of the islands, including the leeward political parties of the islands and many the the short coral islands, are covered through tropical and also subtropical dried broadleaf forests and tropical and also subtropical grasslands, savannas, and also shrublands. Hawaii"s high volcanoes, Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, are house to part rare dry montane grasslands and shrublands.
Since the islands of Oceania to be never linked by land to a continent, the flora and fauna of the islands originally reached lock from throughout the ocean. When they reached the islands, the ancestors of Oceania"s current flora and fauna adjusted to life top top the islands. Larger islands with varied ecological niches urged floral and also faunal adaptive radiation, by which multiple varieties evolved native a usual ancestor, each species adapted come a different ecological niche; the various types of Hawaiian honeycreepers (family Drepanididae) are a classic example. Various other adaptations to island ecologies incorporate giantism, dwarfism, and, amongst birds, loss of flight. Oceania has a variety of endemic species; Hawaii, in particular, is taken into consideration a global “center that endemism,” through its woodland ecoregions having actually one of the highest possible percentages of endemic tree in the world.
Land plants spread by several various means. Many plants, mainly ferns and mosses but likewise some flower plants, disperse on the wind, relying on tiny spores or feathery seed that can remain airborne over lengthy distances. Various other plants, especially coconut palms and also mangroves, produce seeds that can float in saltwater over long distances, at some point washing up on far-off beaches. Birds space also an important means that dispersal; some plants produce sticky seeds that are carried on the feet or feather of birds, and many plants create fruits filled through seeds that can pass with the cradle tracts that birds. Botanists typically agree that lot of the flora that Oceania is derived from the Malesian Flora that the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, the Philippines, and new Guinea, with some plants from Australasia and also a couple of from the Americas, an especially in Hawaii. Metrosideros, Pandanus, and Coco are tree genera through a reasonably ubiquitous distribution across Oceania.
Dispersal throughout the ocean is daunting for many land animals, and also Oceania has relatively few indigenous land animals compared to various other ecozones. Certain varieties of pets that space ecologically vital on the continent ecozones, like big land predators and also grazing mammals, to be entirely absent from the archipelago of Oceania until humans brought them. Birds are reasonably common, including many sea birds and some types of floor birds who ancestors may have actually been blown the end to sea by storms. Some birds evolved into flightless species after their ancestors arrived, including several types of rails. A variety of islands have indigenous lizards, including geckoes and skinks, who ancestors probably landed on floating rafts that vegetation washed the end to sea by storms. With the exemption of bats, i m sorry live on many of the island groups, there are couple of if any kind of indigenous mammal types in Oceania. Several species, however, have been introduced by humans: the an initial Malayo-Polynesian settlers lugged pigs, dogs, and, inadvertently, rats to the islands. European settlers lugged other animals, consisting of cats, mongooses, sheep, goats, and the Norway rat.
These and other introduced species, in enhancement to overhunting and deforestation, have actually dramatically changed the ecology of numerous of Oceania"s islands, pushing many species to die out or near-extinction. The lack of predator types caused countless bird species to come to be “naïve,” losing the instinct come flee native predators, and also to lay your eggs ~ above the ground, which makes them delicate to presented predators prefer cats, dogs, mongooses, and also rats. The come of human beings on these island groups frequently resulted in disruption of the indigenous ecosystems and waves of types extinctions. Easter Island, the easternmost island in Polynesia, shows proof of a human-caused ecosystem please several century ago, which then resulted in the human population to implode. The island, when lushly forested, is now mainly windswept grasslands. More recently, Guam"s indigenous bird and also lizard varieties were decimated by the introduction of the brown snake, Boiga irregularis, in the 1940s.
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The economic situation of Oceania is consisted of of an ext than 14 different countries and their connected economies. The region has about 35,834,670 citizens who room spread among 30,000 islands in the south Pacific bordered through Asia and also the Americas. Oceania has a varied mix of economies from the extremely developed and also globally vain financial industries of Australia (1st) and new Zealand (2nd), boasting same with lot of western Europe, to the lot less emerged economies the belong to plenty of of their island neighbors.