Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer

An ionic bond results from the deliver of an electron native a steel atom to a non-metal atom.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds are formed between cations and anions.A cation is developed when a metal ion loser a valence electron if an anion is developed when a non-metal gains a valence electron. Lock both achieve a much more stable electronic configuration through this exchange.Ionic solids kind crystalline lattices, or repeating patterns of atoms, through high melt points, and are frequently soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: an ionic link which dissolves in H2O, do the resulting solution capable of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The propensity of an atom to lure electrons to itself.cation: A positively charged ion.anion: A negatively charged ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a form of chemical bond in i beg your pardon valence electrons are lost from one atom and gained by another. This exchange results in a much more stable, noble gas electronic configuration because that both atoms involved. An ionic link is based upon attractive electrostatic forces between two ion of the opposite charge.

Cations and Anions

Ionic bond involve a cation and also an anion. The link is created when an atom, commonly a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and also becomes a optimistic ion, or cation. An additional atom, frequently a non-metal, is maybe to gain the electron(s) to end up being a an adverse ion, or anion.

One example of an ionic shortcut is the formation of sodium fluoride, NaF, native a sodium atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the sodium atom loser its solitary valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has actually just enough space to expropriate it. The ions developed are oppositely charged and also are attracted to one one more due to electrostatic forces.


Formation the NaF: one electron is moved from Na come F. The result Na+ and also F– ions are electrically attracted to each other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds kind lattices, space crystalline solids under regular conditions, and have high melting points. Most of this solids space soluble in H2O and conduct power when dissolved. The capability to conduct electricity in solution is why these substances are dubbed electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a good example the this kind of compound.

Ionic bonds different from covalent bonds. Both types result in the stable electronic states connected with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons space shared between the 2 atoms. Every ionic bonds have some covalent character, yet the larger the difference in electronegativity in between the two atoms, the better the ionic character of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen explains how ionic solids form when cations and also anions space attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice power is a measure of the bond strength in one ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the factors that impact it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice energy is identified as the power required to different a mole of one ionic solid into gaseous ions.Lattice power cannot it is in measured empirically, but it deserve to be calculated utilizing electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main determinants that add to the size of the lattice energy are the charge and radius the the external inspection ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A process which releases warmth into its surroundings.lattice energy: The amount of power released upon development of a crystalline ionic heavy from gaseous ions.

Definition that Lattice Energy

Lattice power is an estimate of the bond toughness in ionic compounds. The is characterized as the warmth of formation for ions of opposite fee in the gas step to incorporate into an ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice energy of salt chloride, NaCl, is the power released as soon as gaseous Na+ and also Cl– ions come together to form a lattice of alternative ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The negative sign of the power is indicative of an exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice energy can be believed of together the energy required to different a mole of one ionic solid into the gaseous kind of its ion (that is, the reverse of the reaction shown above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ions (Na+) and chloride(Cl–) ions, illustrated in purple and green respectively, alternative in the crystal lattice of hard NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice power can be assumed of together the power required to separate a mole of one ionic solid right into the gaseous type of its ion (that is, the turning back of the reaction presented above).

Lattice power cannot be established experimentally due to the an obstacle in isolating gaseous ions. The power value deserve to be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it deserve to be calculate theoretically through an electrostatic examination of the crystal structure.

Factors influence Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and Lande presented the following model for lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which depends on the crystal geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge number of the anion; e is the elementary fee of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a properties of the compressibility that the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of cost-free space; and r0 is the distance to the closestly ion.

This design emphasizes 2 main components that contribute to the lattice energy of one ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and also the radius, or size, of the ions. The result of those factors is:

as the charge of the ion increases, the lattice energy increasesas the dimension of the ion increases, the lattice energy decreases

Lattice energies are additionally important in predicting the solubility the ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller sized lattice energies have tendency to be more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe charge on the cations and anions in one ionic compound have the right to be figured out by the lose or get of valence electrons important in order to achieve stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The number of cations and anions the are linked in an ionic link is the simplest ratio of totality integers that deserve to be merged to reach electric neutrality.The cation precedes the anion in both the written kind and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any type of of the facets of group 18 of the routine table, which space monatomic and, through very restricted exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net charge of zero, i m sorry occurs as soon as an atom or molecule/compound has no surplus or deficit the electrons.empirical formula: The simplest whole-number proportion between aspects in a formula the a compound.polyatomic ion: one ion written of several atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic shortcut is formed through the deliver of one or more valence electrons, commonly from a steel to a non-metal, i beg your pardon produces a cation and an anion that room bound with each other by one attractive electrostatic force. Top top a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), form a crystalline lattice and also are solids at regular temperatures and also pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: sodium chloride crystal lattice


The charge on the cations and also anions is determined by the variety of electrons compelled to accomplish stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic composition is then defined by the requirement that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to incorporate magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to get an ionic compound, we first note the electronic configurations of this atoms (valence level in indicated in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In order to attain noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom demands to shed its two valence electrons, while the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, calls for one added electron to fill its outer shell. Therefore, for the resulting link to be neutral, two bromine anions must combine with one magnesium cation to type magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any type of ratio the 2 bromine atoms to 1 magnesium atom will fulfill the two needs above, the formula for ionic compounds is generally presented as the empirical formula, or the easiest whole-number proportion of atoms with confident integers.

Note that the cation always precedes the anion both in written kind and in formulas. In the composed form, while the cation surname is usually the same as the element, the suffix that single-atom anions is changed to –ide, as in the instance of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, the suffix can vary, but is generally either –ate or –ite,as in the cases of salt phosphate and calcium nitrite, depending upon the identification of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and F– integrate to form LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– combine to type CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and O2- combine to kind FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and S2- combine to form Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and also SO42- integrate to kind Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- integrate to kind (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and ClO2– incorporate to kind KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented together the complete transfer that valence electrons, frequently from a steel to a non-metal.In reality, electron thickness remains shared between the constituent atoms, an interpretation all bonds have some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature of a shortcut is figured out by the relative electronegativities the the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent link that has actually a partial ionic character to it, together a result of the difference in electronegativity in between the two bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure of the tendency of an atom to attract electrons come itself.covalent character: The partial share of electrons in between atoms that have actually an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical link are generally classified through the bonds in between constituent atoms. There space multiple type of attractive forces, including covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are generally presented as the finish loss or gain of one or more valence electron from a steel to a nonmetal, resulting in cations and anions that are hosted together through attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The development of an ionic bond in between lithium and also fluorine to kind LiF.


Example the a polar covalent bond: once a carbon atom forms a bond through fluorine, castle share a pair the electrons. However, because fluorine is more highly electronegative than carbon, it attractive that common electron pair closer come itself and thus create an electric dipole. The small letter greek delta written above the atom is supplied to show the existence of partial charges. This shortcut is thought about to have features of both covalent and ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond in between these atoms is more complicated than this version illustrates. The bond formed between any two atoms is not a completely ionic bond. Every bonding interactions have some covalent character since the electron density remains shared between the atoms. The level of ionic versus covalent personality of a shortcut is determined by the distinction in electronegativity in between the constituent atoms. The bigger the difference, the more ionic the nature of the bond. In the typical presentation, bonds room designated as ionic as soon as the ionic element is higher than the covalent aspect of the bond. Binding that loss in in between the two extremes, having both ionic and covalent character, space classified together polar covalent bonds. Together bonds space thought of as consisting that partially charged confident and an adverse poles.

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Though ionic and also covalent character stand for points along a continuum, this designations are frequently useful in understanding and also comparing the macroscopic properties of ionic and covalent compounds. Because that example, ionic compounds frequently have higher boiling and melting points, and also they are also usually an ext soluble in water 보다 covalent compounds.