Most gene contain the info needed to make useful molecules called proteins. (A couple of genes develop regulatory molecule that assist the cell assemble proteins.) The journey from gene to protein is complex and tightly managed within each cell. It is composed of two major steps: transcription and translation. Together, transcription and also translation are well-known as gene expression.

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During the process of transcription, the information stored in a gene"s DNA is passed come a similar molecule dubbed RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the cell nucleus. Both RNA and DNA are comprised of a chain of building blocks called nucleotides, but they have actually slightly various chemical properties. The type of RNA that consists of the info for make a protein is called messenger RNA (mRNA) because it carries the information, or message, native the DNA the end of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.

Translation, the second step in getting from a gene to a protein, takes place in the cytoplasm. The mRNA interacts v a specialized facility called a ribosome, i m sorry "reads" the succession of mRNA nucleotides. Every sequence of three nucleotides, called a codon, generally codes for one details amino acid. (Amino acids are the structure blocks the proteins.) A type of RNA referred to as transfer RNA (tRNA) assembles the protein, one amino acid at a time. Protein assembly continues until the ribosomes encounters a “stop” codon (a succession of three nucleotides the does no code for an amino acid).

The flow of info from DNA to RNA to proteins is among the an essential principles of molecule biology. It is so vital that that is sometimes dubbed the “central dogma.”

Through the procedures of transcription and translation, information from genes is offered to do proteins.


The hereditary Science Learning facility at the college of Utah provides an interactive introduction to transcription and also translation.

North Dakota State University"s digital Cell computer animation Collection provides videos that highlight the processes of transcription and translation.

The brand-new Genetics, a publication of the nationwide Institute of basic Medical Sciences, contains discussions the transcription and also translation.


Biointeractive native the Howard Hughes medical Institute illustrates the step in the circulation of info from DNA come RNA come protein. This tool also gives instances of how modern technologies that target the various stages are offered to treat genetic diseases.

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