Hydroxide is a diatomic anion consists of one atom that oxygen and hydrogen bonded together by a covalent bond, v chemical formula as OH- and also carries negatively charged ion. It attributes as a nucleophile, a ligand, a catalyst, and a base.

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Ion of a steel is commonly the positively charged part of the compound, for example, aluminum, magnesium or sodium, and also might it is in in the necessary group. The not natural hydroxides covers alkali and alkali planet metals are important industrial alkalis favor calcium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide.

The hydroxide attached to electropositive deserve to ionize itself and liberate hydrogen cation  (H+) converting the parental compound come an acid. ~ above the various other hand, numerous of not natural substance having actually the native hydroxide in their name are the covalent compound containing hydroxyl groups however not the ionic compounds of hydroxide ion.

Hydroxide Ion

Due to the self-ionization reaction, the hydroxide ion is a natural part of water.

H3O++OH−⇌2H2OH_3O^+ + OH^- ightleftharpoons 2H_2OH3​O++OH−⇌2H2​O

While, the equilibrium constant of this reaction is defined as

Kw=K_w = Kw​=


The options of sodium hydroxide are widely used in the produce of paper, pulp, textiles, soaps, detergents, drink water and also drain cleaner. It is likewise known together caustic soda and also lye. The primary technique of production by the procedure of chlor-alkali.

The solution that contains hydroxide ion is derived when weak mountain salt is liquified in water. The sodium carbonate is used as an alkali through the plot of the hydrolysis reaction.

CO32−+H2O⇌HCO3−+OH−CO_3^2- + H_2O ightleftharpoons HCO_3^- + OH^-CO32−​+H2​O⇌HCO3−​+OH−

Bauxite is the major or through which the metal is the manufacturer and also is a simple of the hydroxide of aluminum. Similarly, lepidocrocite γ–FeO(OH) gamma – FeO(OH)γ–FeO(OH) and also the goethite α–FeO(OH)alpha – FeO (OH)α–FeO(OH) are likewise the basis of hydroxide of ion and one among the ores that provided to to produce the metallic iron.

Inorganic Hydroxides

Alkali Metals

Apart from salt hydroxide NaOH and also potassium hydroxide KOH, the hydroxides of other alkali metals are also useful. The lithium hydroxide pKbpK_bpKb​ of -0.36 is a solid base used in the breath gas purification system for submarines and also spacecraft to remove carbon dioxide CO2CO_2CO2​ from exhaled gas.

2LiOH+CO2→Li2CO3+H2O2 LiOH + CO_2 ightarrow Li_2CO_3 + H_2O2LiOH+CO2​→Li2​CO3​+H2​O

Alkaline planet Metals

The Beryllium hydroxide Be(OH2)Be(OH_2)Be(OH2​) is amphoteric. The enhancement of acid offers a soluble hydrolysis products like trimeric ion 3+^3+3+ which is hydroxy (OH)(OH)(OH) group.

Boron group Elements

The boric mountain is the easiest hydroxide of boron B(OH)3B(OH)_3B(OH)3​. Unlike, the alkaline earth hydroxides and alkali hydroxide, the boric acid doesn’t disconnect in aqueous solution. The reacts with molecules of water by release protons together Lewis acid.

B(OH)3+H2O⇌B(OH)4−+H+ B (OH)_3 + H_2O ightleftharpoons B (OH)_4^- + H^+B(OH)3​+H2​O⇌B(OH)4−​+H+

Carbon team Elements

The carbon forms facility hydroxides. The hypothetical compound C(OH)4C(OH)_4C(OH)4​ prefer methanetetraol or orthocarbonic acid is unstable aqueous solutions.

C(OH)4→HCO3−+H3O+ C (OH)_4 ightarrow HCO_3^- + H_3O^+C(OH)4​→HCO3−​+H3​O+HCO3−+H+⇌H2CO3 HCO_3^- + H^+ ightleftharpoons H_2CO_3HCO3−​+H+⇌H2​CO3​

While, the carbon dioxide is likewise known together carbonic anhydride, which method that the is created by dehydration the carbonic mountain H2CO3(OC(OH)2)H_2CO_3 (OC (OH)_2)H2​CO3​(OC(OH)2​).

Other Main-Group Elements

The other main-group facets of hydroxide in not natural hydroxides room sulfuric acid, xenic acid, telluric acid, phosphoric acid, ortho-periodic acid and phosphorous acid.

Hydroxide in organic Reactions

Sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide space the two well-known substance in necessary chemistry.

Base Catalysis

The hydroxide ions in organic reaction act together a basic catalyst. It summary a proton from a weak acid and the common substance for proton abstraction room carbon acids, amines phenols, and alcohols.

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Nucleophilic Reagent

The hydroxide ion in nucleophilic is intermediate between the amido ion (NH−)(NH-)(NH−) and fluoride ion (F−)(F^-)(F−). The hydrolysis of one ester R1C(O)OR2+H2O⇌R1C(O)OH+HOR2R^1C(O)OR^2 + H_2O ightleftharpoons R^1C (O)OH + HOR^2R1C(O)OR2+H2​O⇌R1C(O)OH+HOR2 is an instance of nucleophilic acyl.