Formula and also structure: The chemical formula that calcium chloride is CaCl2, and also its molar fixed is 110.983 g/mol. It is an ionic link consisting the the calcium cation (Ca2+) and also two chlorine anions (Cl-). The bivalent calcium metal forms an ionic bond through two chlorine atoms, as displayed below.

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Occurrence: Calcium chloride occurs in nature in its hydrated forms as the rarely minerals sinjarite (dihydrate) and also antarcticite (hexahydrate). It is also found in huge amounts in herbal brine native salt lakes and salt deposits.

Preparation: Calcium chloride is mainly produced by reacting limestone (CaCO3) with hydrochloric mountain (HCl).

CaCO3 + 2 HCl → CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

It is likewise produced together a major by-product throughout manufacture the soda ash (Na2CO3) by the Solvay process, in i beg your pardon limestone is reacted v NaCl solution.

Physical properties: Calcium chloride is found as one odorless white powder, granules or flakes. It has a thickness of 2.15 g/mL, melting suggest of 782 °C and also a high boiling suggest over 1600 °C.

Chemical properties: CaCl2 is very water soluble, hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from air) and also deliquescent (absorbs enough water to turn right into liquid). Calcium chloride dissolves in water in a an extremely exothermic path (releasing a large amount of heat). Calcium chloride fully dissociates in water to offer calcium cations and chloride anions. In aqueous solutions, the calcium ions deserve to displace other ions in exchange reactions, such as the switch of potassium phosphate right into calcium phosphate:

3 CaCl2 + 2 K3PO4 → Ca3(PO4)2 + 6 KCl

Uses: Calcium chloride has actually several similar uses as salt chloride, and it is supplied as a food additive, food preservative, for de-icing roadways in winter, and as brine in refrigeration plants. That is likewise used together a swimming swimming pool chemical, in water therapy plants, and also for desiccating purposes. It additionally has applications in metallurgy, oil-well drilling, and also rubber, paper, dye and paint industries.

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Health effects/safety hazards: Calcium chloride is no toxic in normal amounts and is used in foods. However, its main hazard is due to its desiccating (drying) property and also exothermic reaction as soon as it dissolves in water. Thus, once the solid come into call with wet skin or eyes, it can reason severe irritation and mild burns. Swallowing huge amounts can an outcome in nausea, vomiting and abdominal muscle pain.