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Lima, city, resources of Peru. That is the country’s commercial and also industrial centre. Main Lima is situated at an key of 512 feet (156 metres) ~ above the south bank of the Rímac River, about 8 mile (13 km) inland indigenous the Pacific ocean port the Callao, and has one area that 27 square miles (70 square km). Its name is a corruption of the Quechua name Rímac, meaning “Talker.” The city creates a contemporary oasis, surrounded by the Peruvian seaside desert a short distance west of the Andes Mountains. Area 1,506 square miles (3,900 square km). Pop. (2007) metro. Area, 8,472,935.


Physical and also human geography

The character of the city

Perhaps the finest clue to the meaning of Lima to the nation of Peru can be found in its most renowned nickname: El Pulpo (“The Octopus”). City Lima’s vast size—it accounts for about one-fourth the the total populace of Peru—has both resulted from and also stimulated the concentration of people, capital, politics influence, and also social innovations. Lima’s distinct status is but one of the more important aftermath of a highly centralized, unitary state that from its start in the beforehand 19th century addressed interregional disputes by concentrating power and also prestige on the city. With its harbor of Callao and its location at the center of Peru’s Pacific coast, Lima was long the only allude of contact between the country and the exterior world.


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As with plenty of sprawling and rapidly farming metropolitan centres, Lima has actually its detractors and also its promoters. Those who remember the an ext tranquil, traditional days, before the come of numerous migrants and before the many buses and automobiles lugged pollution and congestion, space prone to use one more nickname because that the capital: Lima la Horrible. This is the noisy, dirty, gloomy, damp, and depressing Lima, perceptions shared by both short-term visitors and also longtime residents. Also though sunshine go break v the dense seaside fog in the summer, Lima then becomes unbearably hot and humid, and also the sunshine appears to emphasize even more clearly the grimy buildings and lack that greenery in the main city.

The landscape

The city site

Lima sprawls well past its original Spanish site at a bridgeable suggest on the Rímac River. Disgorging precipitously from the high Andes, the Rímac has created a flat-topped alluvial cone, on i m sorry the at an early stage Spanish homesteaders established their settlement. Since practically the entire coastal plain in central Peru consists of unconsolidated fluvioglacial deposits, cliff erosion and also earthquakes are regular threats. In broadening from its original site, the city has incorporated within its cloth various hills and valleys that are likewise prone to planet tremors and also flash floods. One of the many notable attributes of Lima is the barren, unvegetated desert the surrounds that on all sides; the grayish-yellow sands support almost no tree or pet life, save where water has actually been artificially provided.


Though Lima is located at a tropical latitude, the cool offshore Peru (also dubbed Humboldt) existing helps produce a year-round temperate climate. Average temperature varieties 60–64 °F (16–18 °C) in the winter months of may to November and 70–80 °F (21–27 °C) in the summer month of December come April. The cooling that the seaside air mass produces thick cloud cover throughout the winter, and the garúa (dense sea mist) frequently rolls in to blanket locations of the city. Precipitation, which hardly ever exceeds 2 inches (50 mm) per annum, usually outcomes from the condensation that the garúa. Lima is perhaps finest described as cold and also damp in winter and also hot and also humid in summer.

Because clouds often tend to trap airborne pollutants, Limeños (residents that Lima) can frequently taste the air. A permanent problem resulting native the high humidity is oxidation, rust gift a typical sight. Countless of the wealthier citizens established winter homes on the coastline north or southern of the city proper or in together localities together La Molina, a brief distance come the eastern of Lima, where the climate is cost-free of fog and also cloud.

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The city layout

Lima contains a collection of townscapes well defined by its long history. The main point of old Lima, delineated through Spanish colonists in the 16th century and partly attached by defensive walls in the 17th, retains its checkerboard street pattern. Bounded ~ above the phibìc by the Rímac and also on the east, south, and also west by large avenues, old Lima consists of a couple of restored colonial buildings (Torre Tagle Palace, the cathedral, and also the Archbishop’s Palace) interspersed amongst buildings the the 19th and 20th centuries, plenty of of i beg your pardon were developed upon the sites of former early american residences that had broke down during the significant earthquakes that have actually struck the city. The old walls, however, to be demolished in the mid-19th century. The two major squares (Plaza de Armas and also Plaza Bolívar) still carry out the foci that architectural attention within main Lima, and the enclosed wooden balconies so typical of the early american city have actually now come to be features to be maintained or restored. The Presidential palace (built top top the website of Pizarro’s house) and many other structures reflect the previous popularity that the French realm style. ~ above the north next of the Rímac, the old colonial suburb that the same name conserves relics of its previous in that is curved, narrow streets, strictly packed v single-story houses, and also its Alameda de los Descalzos (“Boulevard the the Barefoot Monks”).