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Carbon is one of the many common aspects on earth, and also greatly influences daily life. Typical molecules containing carbon encompass carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Numerous scientists in a range of areas study that carbon: biologists investigating the beginnings of life; oceanographers measure up the acidification the the oceans; and also engineers emerging diamond film tools. This write-up details the routine properties the the carbon family and also briefly discusses the the individual properties of carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, and also flerovium.

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## Introduction

The carbon family, group 14 in the p-block, has carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), believe (Sn), command (Pb), and flerovium (Fl). Each of these elements has just two electron in that outermost p orbital: each has the electron construction ns2np2. The group 14 facets tend to adopt oxidation says of +4 and, because that the heavier elements, +2 as result of the inert pair effect.

Figure $$\PageIndex1$$: group 14 in the periodic Table

Members that this team conform well to basic periodic trends. The atom radii increase down the group, and also ionization energies decrease. Metallic properties rise down the group. Carbon is a non-metal, silicon and germanium space metalloids, and also tin and lead are negative metals (they conduct heat and electricity less properly than other steels such together copper).

Despite their adherence to routine trends, the properties of the carbon household vary greatly. For example, carbon is a non-metal and also behaves as such, vice versa, tin and lead behave totally as metals. In your elemental solid states, the team 14 metalloids silicon and germanium act as electric semiconductors, although silicon is mainly non-metallic; their electric conductivity have the right to be influenced in various levels by doping, or including of group 13 or team 15 aspects in varying concentrations come the team 14 solid matrix. These semiconductor properties have broad application for circuitry contents in the electronic devices industry, such together diodes, transistors, and also integrated circuit (IC) chips.

ElementSymbolAtomic #Atomic MassClassificationElectron Configuration
Carbon C 6 12.011 Non-metal 2s22p2
Silicon Si 14 28.0855 Metalloid 3s23p2
Germanium Ge 32 72.61 Metalloid 3d104s24p2
Tin Sn 50 118.710 Metal 4d105s25p2
Lead Pb 82 207.2 Metal 4f145d106s26p2
Flerovium Fl 114 287 Metal 5f146d107s27p2

### Carbon

Carbon is the fourth most abundant element on earth. It is of certain interest in essential benidormclubdeportivo.orgistry, together it is the differentiating feature the an organic compound. That is also considered the "backbone" that biology, as all life creates on planet are carbon-based. This is because of two important qualities of carbon: its tiny size and its distinctive electron configuration. Since carbon atoms are small, their p-orbital electrons overlap substantially and permit π bonds to form. Compare the molecular frameworks of CO2 and SiO2 below:

$$\ceCO_2$$ has double bonds in between carbon and also oxygen atoms, whereas $$\ceSiO2$$ has solitary bonds. The $$\ceCO_2$$ molecule exists freely in the gas phase. The $$\ceSiO_2$$ molecule, by contrast, always exists in ~ a network of covalent bonds.

Carbon"s electron configuration of enables it to type very steady bonds through oxygen and also hydrogen. This bonds keep an huge amount the energy. The formation (fixation) and breakage (combustion) of this bonds in the carbon bicycle facilitate earthly life:

\<\ce6CO2 + 6H2O + power → C6H12O6 + 6O2 \nonumber\>

Carbon combustion: In aerobic respiration, plants and also animals rest carbohydrates down into carbon dioxide and water (as shown in the equation below) and use the energy released come fuel organic activities—growth, movement, etc. In addition, the combustion of carbohydrates discovered in fossil fuel provides energy needed for modern-day activities.

\<\ceC6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy \nonumber\>

Next come sulfur, carbon is the facet with the most allotropes. Carbon has actually three main solid state allotropes: graphite, diamond, and fullerenes (the most typically known of which, buckminsterfullerene, is likewise known as a "buckyball"). These allotropes differ considerably in structure however are widely supplied in contemporary production.

Graphite and a diamond

Graphite has lubricating properties the make the extremely suitable for usage in pencils. Due to the fact that it is made up of planes of six-membered rings that can quickly slide past one another, graphite glides easily and also is hence used in mix with clay to form pencil "lead." Graphite is also used in a fibrous type for miscellaneous plastics.

Carbon has really high melting and boiling points. Graphite is the most thermodynamically steady allotrope that carbon under ordinary conditions. In diamond, the an ext stable allotrop at extreme pressures (105 atm and up), each carbon atom is external inspection to 4 others in a tetrahedral arrangement, bring about the hardest naturally-occurring substance known. This hardness, merged with a good ability come dissipate heat, provides diamond and also diamond film wonderful materials in drill bits and other machine parts; however, the highest-quality organic diamonds are used mainly for jewelry, whereas lower-grade diamond or even synthetic diamond is used for industrial purposes.

Fullerenes (named ~ R. Buckminster Fuller) and nanotubes are a series of carbon allotropes in which carbon rings type more complicated forms, consisting of soccerball-like molecule (C60) and also tubes resembling cylinders do of chicken wire. Graphene, a solitary carbon sheet through intriguing electronic properties, is the basis because that these allotropes. Fullerenes happen when a particular percentage the hexagonal rings are assembled to type pentagonal rings, bring about the sheet to contort into a approximately spherical "Buckyball." A carbon nanotube is simply graphene bent right into a cylinder. Some of these allotropes are formed in the decomposition that graphite. Combustion can likewise yield alternative carbon forms. Heated coal without air forms coke. Likewise heated hardwood becomes charcoal as much more volatile integrands are required away.

4-) to host nutrients in the soil, wherein their roots deserve to absorb castle (Sadava 787). Silicon (primarily in the silica, SiO2, molecule) has been provided for millennia in the development of ceramics and also glass. In an ext recent history, the name "Silicon Valley" attests to the element"s importance in the computing industry— if carbon is the backbone of human intelligence, silicon is the backbone of fabricated intelligence. Silicon is found in coast sand, and also is a significant component that concrete and also brick.

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### Germanium

Germanium is a rare element used in the manufacture of semi-conductor devices. The physical and benidormclubdeportivo.orgical properties of germanium are very comparable to those that silicon. The semi-metal is found in coal, ore, and germanite. Germanium is gray-white in color and also forms crystal structures.