The graphic above clearly reveals that hurricanes (Atlantic basin, E. Pacific), typhoons (W. Pacific), and also cyclones (Indian Ocean, Australia) rarely if ever type between 5 deg North and 5 deg south latitudes, respectively. Theprerequisite problems for hurricanes are: warm, deep ocean waters (greater than 80°F / 27°C), an atmosphere cooling quickly with altitude, moist middle layers that the atmosphere, short wind shear, and a pre-existing near surface disturbance. Also if these conditions are in place, a tropical cyclone is not most likely to form if that is not at the very least 300 or so miles from the equator.
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This is due to the fact that of the absence of the Coriolis force. What is that? that is an evident force caused by the rotation that the Earth. It is named after French mathematician Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis who investigated power in rotating systems. It acts upon moving air and also water in ~ timescales much longer than a work or so. This way that her bathwater spiraling the end of the tub is not likely being impacted by the Coriolis force. Earthlings (us) will notification acceleration the an wait or water mass to the best of forward movement in the north Hemisphere and also to the left in the southerly Hemisphere. Because parts that the earth are moving at various speeds (yep), this has a profound result on the Coriolis force. The scijinks.gov website notes,
It takes earth 24 hrs to turn one time. If you space standing a foot to the appropriate of the north or southern Pole, that means it would certainly take 24 hours to relocate in a circle that is around six feet in circumference. That’s around 0.00005 miles every hour.Hop on under to the equator, though, and also things are different. It still takes planet the exact same 24 hours to do a rotation, yet this time we space traveling the whole circumference that the planet, i m sorry is around 25,000 mile long. That method you are traveling nearly 1040 miles per hour simply by standing there.
No planet Rotation (left) vs earth Rotation (right) and resultant Coriolis force. NOAA/Marshall Shepherd
The Coriolis pressure is quite various at the equator than it is at the Poles. In fact, the magnitude is zero at the equator. Ns hope you didn"t have lunch yet because I am about to throw a small math at you but don"t worry, the isn"t too bad.Coriolis pressure is expressed together Coriolis Force=2VΩsin A.V is velocity, Ω is angular velocity and A is latitude. If friend think back to high college math class, the sine that 0 (the latitude in ~ the equator) is 0 also. This is why there is no Coriolis force at the equator and also why hurricanes rarely form near the equator. The Coriolis force is simply too weak to move the air about low pressure. Air prefers to circulation from high to short pressure. According to NOAA"s NWS Jetstream virtual school, there have actually been a few exceptions,
.....Typhoon Vamei which formed near Singapore ~ above December 27, 2001. Due to the fact that tropical cyclone observations started in 1886 in the phibìc Atlantic and 1945 in the western phibìc Pacific, the previous tape-recorded lowest latitude because that a tropic cyclone to be 3.3°N for Typhoon sarah in 1956. With its circulation center at 1.5°N Typhoon Vamei"s circulation was on both sides of the equator. U.S. Naval ships report maximum sustained surface wind the 87 mph and also gust wind of approximately 120 mph.
Professor Paul Roundy at university at Albany-Suny additionally pointed out the fascinating instance of Cyclone Agni in 2004 as well.
Hopefully it is clear why development of tropical cyclones is rare near the equator, however can a hurricane overcome the equator if it has already formed beyond 5 levels latitude? Theoretically, the price is yes but there is a "but."Professor Gary Barnes addressed this an extremely question top top the college of Hawaii department of Meteorology website. The says,
Yes, because a well emerged storm has actually plenty that spin the would conquer the weak Coriolis force near there. If it overcome the Coriolis force would be working versus the early stage direction of the spin, yet it would be dominated by what we speak to the loved one vorticity the the storm. Have we checked out this happen ? Hurricanes deserve to move south and also get close come the equator however I can not find an example of one crossing in the Atlantic or east Pacific. In the Indian s some come closer come pulling turn off this trick. Why don"t they overcome ? The variation in Coriolis through latitude - dubbed the Beta impact - in reality will relocate a hurricane come the NW in the northern hemisphere even if there is no huge scale wind advertise the storm along ! So, Coriolis not just seems to be a essential ingredient to do a storm, but it may additionally pull them far from the equator do the crossing occasion a hard one to traction off.
Though about theory possible,practically the is not likely as meteorologists at Accuweather.com provided in an digital Q&A.
Hurricane directions by hemisphere. scijinks.gov
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Dr. J. Marshall Shepherd, a leading international skilled in weather and climate, was the 2013 president of American Meteorological culture (AMS) and also is manager of the…Read More
Dr. J. Marshall Shepherd, a top international expert in weather and also climate, was the 2013 president of American Meteorological culture (AMS) and also is director of the college of Georgia’s (UGA) Atmospheric scientific researches Program. Dr. Shepherd is the Georgia strong Association identified Professor and also hosts The Weather Channel’s Weather Geeks Podcast, which deserve to be found at every podcast outlets. Prior to UGA, Dr. Shepherd invested 12 years together a research Meteorologist at NASA-Goddard an are Flight Center and was Deputy project Scientist for the worldwide Precipitation measure up (GPM) mission. In 2004, he was honored in ~ the White home with a call PECASE award. He likewise has received major honors indigenous the American Meteorological Society, American combination of Geographers, and the Captain planet Foundation. Shepherd is typically sought together an experienced on weather and climate by major media outlets, the White House, and Congress. He has over 80 peer-reviewed scholarly publications and numerous editorials. Dr. Shepherd obtained his B.S., M.S. And also PhD in physical meteorology native Florida State University.