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(a) heavy O2 has actually a solved volume and shape, and also the molecules are packed strictly together. (b) liquid O2 conforms come the shape of the container yet has a resolved volume; the contains reasonably densely pack molecules. (c) gaseous O2 filling its container completely—regardless the the container’s dimension or shape—and is composed of widely separated molecules.

The state the a offered substance counts strongly ~ above conditions. For example, H2O is commonly found in all 3 states: heavy ice, liquid water, and water vapor (its gas form). Under most conditions, we encounter water as the liquid that is vital for life; we drink it, cook with it, and bathe in it. As soon as the temperature is cold sufficient to transform the fluid to ice, we can ski or ice scating on it, load it into a snowball or eye cone, and also even construct dwellings v it. Water vaporThe difference between a gas and also a vapor is subtle: the ax vapor refers to the gaseous kind of a substance that is a liquid or a hard under normal conditions (25°C, 1.0 atm). Nitrogen (N2) and also oxygen (O2) are thus referred to together gases, but gaseous water in the environment is referred to as water vapor. Is a component of the air us breathe, and also it is created whenever we warmth water for food preparation food or make coffee or tea. Water vapor in ~ temperatures better than 100°C is dubbed steam. Steam is offered to drive big machinery, consisting of turbines that create electricity. The properties of the three claims of water are summarized in Table 10.1.1

Table 10.1.1 nature of Water in ~ 1.0 atm

Temperature State thickness (g/cm3)
≤0°C solid (ice) 0.9167 (at 0.0°C)
0°C–100°C liquid (water) 0.9997 (at 4.0°C)
≥100°C vapor (steam) 0.005476 (at 127°C)

The geometric structure and also the physical and also benidormclubdeportivo.orgical nature of atoms, ions, and molecules usually perform not count on their physical state; the separation, personal, instance water molecule in ice, fluid water, and steam, because that example, are all identical. In contrast, the macroscopic nature of a substance count strongly on its physical state, which is figured out by intermolecular forces and also conditions such together temperature and also pressure.

Figure 10.1.2 shows the areas in the routine table the those facets that are generally found in the gaseous, liquid, and also solid states. Except for hydrogen, the facets that occur naturally together gases are on the appropriate side the the periodic table. That these, all the noble gases (group 18) space monatomic gases, conversely, the other gaseous elements are diatomic molecule (H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2). Oxygen have the right to also kind a 2nd allotrope, the extremely reactive triatomic molecule ozone (O3), i m sorry is also a gas. In contrast, bromine (as Br2) and also mercury (Hg) room liquids under normal problems (25°C and 1.0 atm, generally referred to as “room temperature and also pressure”). Gallium (Ga), i beg your pardon melts at only 29.76°C, deserve to be convert to a liquid merely by hold a container of that in her hand or keeping it in a non-air-conditioned room on a warm summer day. The rest of the elements are all solids under regular conditions.

Figure 10.1.2 elements That happen Naturally together Gases, Liquids, and Solids at 25°C and 1 atm

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