Key Points

Great seat of finding out rose during the Hellenistic Period, including those in ~ Alexandria and also Antioch.Scientific inquiries were regularly sponsored by royal patrons.The explorations of numerous Greek mathematicians, consisting of Pythagoras and also Euclid, room still supplied in mathematical to teach today. Important advances include the straightforward rules that geometry, the idea the a formal mathematical proof, and discoveries in number theory, mathematical analysis, and applied mathematics.The Greeks likewise developed the ar of astronomy, which they treated together a branch of mathematics to a highly innovative level.Hippocrates was a physician of the classic period, and is considered one the the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. Many notably, he founded the Hippocratic institution of medicine, i m sorry revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece by establishing it as a discipline distinct from various other fields, and making medicine a profession.

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Hellenistic period

The period of ancient Greek and also Mediterranean history between the fatality of Alexander the an excellent in 323 BCE and also the appearance of the roman Empire, together signified through the fight of Actium in 31 BCE.


An essential seat of discovering within the Hellenistic civilization and the capital of Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Egypt for practically 1,000 years, till the Muslim occupation of Egypt in 641 CE.

Hellenistic Culture

Hellenistic society produced seat of finding out in Alexandria, Egypt and Antioch, Syria, along with Greek-speaking populations across several monarchies. Hellenistic scientific research differed from Greek science in at least two ways. First, the benefited from the cross-fertilization of Greek ideas with those the had emerged in the bigger Hellenistic world. Secondly, to part extent, that was supported by imperial patrons in the kingdoms founded by Alexander’s successors.

Especially crucial to Hellenistic scientific research was the city the Alexandria in Egypt, which became a significant center that scientific study in the 3rd century BCE. 2 institutions created there during the reigns that Ptolemy ns Soter (reigned 323-283 BCE) and also Ptolemy II Philadelphus (reigned 281-246 BCE) were the Library and the Museum. Uneven Plato’s Academy and also Aristotle’s Lyceum, these organizations were officially supported by the Ptolemies, although the degree of patronage can be precarious, depending on the plans of the current ruler.


The good Library of Alexandria. The an excellent Library of Alexandria, O. Von Corven. 19th century.

Mathematics and Astronomy

The explorations of number of Greek mathematicians, including Pythagoras and Euclid, are still provided in mathematical teaching today. Important advances include the straightforward rules of geometry, the idea the a official mathematical proof, and discoveries in number theory, mathematics analysis, and applied mathematics. Old Greek mathematicians additionally came nearby to creating integral calculus.

The Greeks additionally developed the field of astronomy, which lock treated as a branch the mathematics, to a highly innovative level. The very first geometrical, three-dimensional models to describe the evident motion that the planets was arisen in the 4th century BCE, through Eudoxus that Cnidus and Callippus that Cyzicus. Their younger contemporary, Heraclides Ponticus, proposed that the planet rotates roughly its axis. In the 3rd century BCE, Aristarchus that Samos to be the very first to indicate a heliocentric system. In the 2ndcentury BCE, Hipparchus that Nicea make a variety of contributions, consisting of the very first measurement the precession and the compilation of the first star catalog, in which that proposed the contemporary system of evident magnitudes.

The Antikythera mechanism, a machine for calculating the motions of the planets, was the an initial ancestor of the astronomical computer. It dates from about 80 BCE, and was uncovered in an ancient shipwreck turn off the Greek island of Antikythera. The maker became famed for its usage of a differential gear, which was previously thought to have been invented in the 16th century, and the miniaturization and complexity the its parts, which has been contrasted to the of clocks produced in the 18th century.

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The medical Field

The ancient Greeks likewise made important discoveries in the clinical field. Hippocrates was a medical professional of the classic period, and also is thought about one the the many outstanding figures in the background of medicine. That is sometimes also referred to together the “father that medicine.” most notably, he started the Hippocratic institution of medicine, i beg your pardon revolutionized medicine in old Greece by developing it as a self-control distinct from other fields, and making medicine a profession.

Other remarkable Hellenistic scientists and their accomplishments include:

Herophilos (335-280 BCE), that was the first to base medical conclusions on dissection that the human body and to explain the worried systemArchimedes (c. 287-212 BCE), a geometer, physicist, and also engineer that laid the foundations of hydrostatics and also statics, and also explained the principle of the leverEratosthenes (c. 276 BCE-195/194 BCE), that measured the distance in between the Sun and also the Earth, as well as the dimension of the EarthSources