17.10 Pepperoni (USA)

Pepperoni in the USA is a raw sausage make from beef and also pork or pork only. Products made from 100% beef must be dubbed beef pepperoni. The ns in weight during manufacture of pepperoni is around 30%, ending up through a water:protein proportion of much less than 1.6:1 and also fermentation takes place primarily under the affect of starter cultures. The fat content of pepperoni is approximately 30–35%. Come manufacture this form of salami, semifrozen meat and also fat products are reduced in the key cutter to a fragment size the 4–5 mm before salt and nitrite room added. The final granulation is 2–3 mm. Spices, starter cultures, colour enhancers and also other additives are introduced into the bowl cutter in ~ the beginning of the cutting process. Paprika is commonly added to provide a touch of red within the product. Salt is current at around 27–29 g every kilogram the sausage mass. The tacky fixed is filled right into easy-to-peel fibrous casings of 45–47 mm diameter. Earlier rolling needs to be avoided throughout filling together this deserve to lead to cupping the the sliced product ~ above the pizza (see thing 16, ar 16.3.2). The widest pour it until it is full pipe in relation to the diameter the the casing needs to be supplied to avoid earlier rolling the the sausage mass.

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Fermentation beginning at roughly 24 °C and also 90–92% RH for roughly 24 h and continues in ~ 90% RH and a temperature of approximately 20 °C for another 24 h. Top top the third day the temperature is reduced to roughly 18 °C and the RH lower to around 85–87%. Acting is used for 1–3 h at approximately 30–35 °C and also the product is climate dried for several hours at 50–55 °C. Drying proceeds at approximately 60 °C until the total weight lose is around 30%. The total production time of such traditional pepperoni is 5–6 days, do it usually a fast-fermented and also semicooked product. Obtaining a constant diameter in the finished product is of good importance together every single slice needs to exhibit the same size. Pepperoni is also produced by adhering to a process as described under allude 17.6 using around 35 °C during fermentation and also heating the product to around 58 °C in the core before being dried at moderate temperatures till the desired loss in load is achieved.

Cooked pepperoni is additionally produced on a large scale and also is made in ~ 1 day. This product is made from around 50% fine base emulsion and also 50% outlet meat and fat particles. A complete recipe would contain 42% beef and 8% ice cream to produce the 50% basic emulsion. Cooking pepperoni is created by cutting lean beef v ice, salt, nitrite, phosphates and spices till a binding fine paste is acquired at a temperature of around 0–4 °C. Well-chilled or slightly frozen meat and fat products are added to the basic emulsion and also cut till a fragment size the 2–3 mm is obtained. The well-mixed tacky sausage fixed is filled into fibrous casings that 47 mm diameter. The mass is then left to redden for 30–45 min at a temperature of approximately 50–55 °C and also low RH. Hot smoking at 60–65 °C for 30–45 min is the following step, followed by thermal treatment at 75–78 °C v steam, or dried heat, until a main point temperature of 70 °C is obtained. The totally cooked product is climate showered and also hung for drying, usually for between 1 and also 3 days.


Gerhard Feiner, in Salami, 2016

8.11 Pepperoni (USA)

Pepperoni in the United says is a life sausage make of beef and pork or pork only. Products made that 100% beef must be called beef pepperoni. The loss in weight throughout manufacture of pepperoni is approximately 30%, finishing up with a water:protein ratio  mm prior to salt and nitrite room added. The last granulation is 2–3 mm. Spices, starter cultures, color enhancers, and also other additives space introduced into the bowl-cutter at the beginning of the cutting process. Paprika is commonly included to offer a touch that red in ~ the product. Salt is existing at about 27–29 g/kg that sausage mass. The tacky massive is filled right into easy-peel fibrous casings that 42–47 mm in diameter. Back-rolling has to be avoided throughout filling as this deserve to lead to cupping of the sliced product ~ above the pizza (see section 7.3.2 under chapter 7: Fermented Salami: Non–Heat Treated). The widest pour it until it is full pipe in relationship to the diameter of the casing has to be offered to stop back-rolling that the sausage mass.

Fermentation starts at 32–37°C and 90–92% RH for roughly 24 hours and also continues in ~ 90% RH and a temperature of around 20°C for one more 24 hours. On the 3rd day, the temperature is reduced to approximately 18°C and also the RH lower to about 85–87%. Cold smoke is occasionally used during the 2nd and third days in order to achieve some level of some color and also smoke flavor. Drying proceeds by 13–16°C, one RH in between 70% and 75%, and low waiting velocity till a water:protein proportion of 1.6:1 is obtained.


Pavan Kumar, ... O.P. Malav, in innovations in traditional Foods, 2019

11.9.8 Pepperettes

Pepperettes/pepperoni sticks are very spicy, dry, fermented sausage ready from ground pork, beef, and also turkey. Your manufacturing procedure is similar to fermented sausage (in enhancement to drying) and also they look comparable to warm dogs. The lot of fat present and drying conditions have a far-ranging impact top top the textural qualities of pepperoni. The sausages are kept for handling by smoking and also drying only. The fermentation is performed in ~ 41°C to pH 4.6 or pH 5. Pepperoni is heat treated after perfect of fermentation to an inner temperature of 54°C for regulating the incident of E. Coli 0157:H7. Lin et al. (2011) evaluated the prooxidant result of environment-friendly tea extract and also sodium nitrite ~ above the high quality of pepperoni throughout processing and also storage under refrigeration temperature and noted their far-ranging prooxidant effect by accelerating lipid oxidation and lypolysis. Vickery and Rogers (2002) utilized various fat replacers such as potato flour in mix with sugar beet fiber, rice flour with modified starch, and rice granules and also reported the the finish product yield of low fat product was equivalent to control.


P.J. Taormina, in Encyclopedia the Food Microbiology (Second Edition), 2014

Fermented and also Acidulated Sausages

Fermented and also dried products, such as German and Italian-style salamis, pepperoni, Lebanon bologna, and summer sausage, are produced by lactic fermentation to attain products of short pH complied with by drying of the product come a fairly low aw because that preservation. These sausages are created by stuffing a comminuted meat, curing agents, spices and also flavorings right into casings, hold at regulated temperatures (e.g., 20–45 °C) and humidities come facilitate acid production while inhibiting spoilage at sausage surfaces, and also then dry at reduced temperatures (e.g., 10–15 °C) and humidities. Most manufacturers add commercial starter societies during formulation come accelerate and control fermentation, ensure consistent quality, and also reduce the risk of S. Aureus growth. Similar to normally cured products, manufacturing of these sausages counts on nitrate palliation by certain bacteria, such as S. Carnosus. In commercial production, processors are permitted to use more ingoing nitrate because that the purpose of slow and steady reduction of nitrate come nitrite throughout fermentation and drying. During fermentation, the acidification need to reach pH 5.3 quickly enough come prevent development of S. Aureus. ~ fermentation, the lactic acid–producing bacteria have the right to exceed 108 g−1, when Enterobacteriaceae must not have increased past initial levels and also S. Aureus need to remain at much less than 103 cfu g−1. Throughout drying and subsequent storage, organic acids (primarily lactic acid) and a relatively high salt content may result in an overall decrease in the microbial population, but with 106 cfu that lactic acid bacteria per gram regularly surviving in these assets at the retail level for plenty of months. Some products are exhilaration or heated, thus considerably reducing the bacterial level in the final product. Fermentation acids, salt, heating, and also drying reason destruction that Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella.


Frankfurters, cured sausages, and comminuted meat commodities such as bologna, salami, and pepperoni are prepared as a meat batter. In its easiest form, a meat batter includes water, protein, fat, and also salt. The basic steps in prepare sausage products include grinding of meat, chopping of meat, additive addition, stuffing, linking, cooking, peeling, slicing, and also packaging. As a general preeminence of thumb, better meat high quality will give a higher quality batter and final product. A typical formulation because that bologna is provided in Table 3.


Product: BolognaIngredientsLevel (%)Quantity needed (kg)
Lean pork trim, 80/2039.2439.24
Lean beef trim, 85/1522.0022.0
Pork trim, 50/5022.0022.0
Water (as ice)10.010.0
Salt1.801.80
Sodium tripolyphosphate0.350.35
Garlic powder0.050.05
Paprika0.250.25
Modified food starch3.50.75
White pepper0.130.13
Prague powder0.300.30
Sodium erythorbate0.050.050
Onion powder0.060.060
Nutmeg0.170.17
Ginger0.100.10

Note: Instructions:•Weigh out all ingredients and also keep castle separate.

Grind every chilled meats with a 0.12 in. Plate, but keep meats separate from one another.

Transfer ground skinny meats, salt, Prague powder, erythorbate, and half of the ice right into the quiet cutter.

Chop come 4 °C (39 °F) and also then include ground pork trim (50/50) and also the staying dry ingredients together with the ice.

Chop ~ above high speed until a temperature of around 13 °C (~55 °F) is reached.

Transfer the batter to a stuffer, and stuff into cellulose casings.

Heat procedure and acting in a smokehouse to 72 °C (~162 °F).

Cold water shower to reduce inner temperature of product to 32 °C (~90 °F).

Transfer product come cooler, chill and when prepared peel and also vacuum package.


There is a details order of procedures which one need to follow once preparing batters. Meat to be used are divided into teams according to how much fat is present. Because that example, there is the lean or 95/5 (i.e., 95% skinny muscle tissue containing 5% intramuscular fat), adhered to by 80/20 and then the fatter 50/50 trim. In the case of commodities containing pork, the majority of fat and also fatty trims should be tough fats indigenous the shoulder, ham, back fat, or jowls. Softer fats together as ship trimmings have to be limited, together they can cause fat caps and also soft texture in the finished product. Every meat type is ground individually to a final grind size, depending upon the product of choice. Grinding is a fragment size reduction step in which pieces of meat are continuously required through the holes of a steel plate between the eight of a rotating multibladed knife. The feet bored into the plate have specific diameters (e.g., 3.2, 6.4, 9.5, 12.7 mm; or 0.12, 0.25, 0.38, 0.5 in., respectively). Meats should be comminuted in two or three measures with a sequential reduction in the grind size. The is necessary to remember, however, that the meats must be kept cold during any kind of grinding procedure to protect against smearing/liquidization the the fat.

Ground meats are transferred to a grinder mixer, a key chopper, or a silent cutter. Right here the mechanical activity of the vertically positioned rotating velvet in mix with included salt and also phosphate will certainly extract myofibrillar proteins from the meat; extracted proteins will aid to immobilize fat corpuscle and kind a three-dimensional network the filaments that contributes come the as whole texture as well as the water- and also fat-binding properties of the perfect product. The sequence of batter preparation goes as follows: skinny meat, phosphate, salt, cure, erythorbate, and fifty percent the ice/water are added to the chopper. The chopping procedure creates enough shear to comminute meat and also fat into fine particulates and also to extract protein. Chopping that the life materials reasons a temperature climb of the meat batter; therefore, the use of ice during formulation helps to ensure the the mixture is blended at 0–3 °C (32–37.4 °F). The staying ice/water is added, complied with by fatter meats (e.g., 80/20 or 50/50) and also then binders, flours, and also seasonings. The rationale because that chopping lean meat with salt and also water is the maximum solubilization that myofibrillar protein wake up at the higher ionic strength prior to ‘dilution’ by fatter meats and binders. This will aid to stop emulsion please or ‘shorting out’ bring about fat caps, gelatine pockets, and a greasy surface ar on the cooking product. Factors for the lack of functionality from the proteins may be early out to negative quality meat (e.g., not enough lean meat protein, denatured protein native acidification, and too lot collagen), addition of too small amounts that salt and also phosphate, overchopping, and also incorrect last batter temperatures.

The batter is chopped until a particular end-point temperature is reached, which is dependency on the fat nature of the animal varieties used. To produce a secure emulsion, the included fat have to exist as little pieces or droplets so that the protein matrix can coat the surface ar of fat particles, thereby reducing surface ar tension; this occurs once the temperature of the batter is raised. No all assets contain meat from only one species; therefore, the end-point temperature that a batter comprise a bulk of pork have to be in between 10 (50) and 13 °C (~55 °F); because that poultry, 2 (35.6) and 7 °C (~45 °F); and for beef, 13 (~55) and also 21 °C (70 °F). Bowl choppers deserve to be offered to manufacture both rough circuit and finely comminuted cured meat products. As soon as a an extremely fine emulsion is desired, some sausage manufacturers happen the chopped meat through a separate emulsifier before stuffing. In such cases, the batter is processed in a quiet cutter just to a temperature ranging in between 2 (35.6) and 4 °C (39 °F). Together it passes v the emulsifier, the temperature go up, and the emulsification step proceeds until the final end-point temperature that the product is achieved.

In some emulsion-type products, vacuum chopping will boost the protein extraction and also density the the emulsion. Vacuum chopping/stuffing removes most of the waiting from the emulsion and gives higher product uniformity, palliation in voids, better protein extraction, far better color retention, and an boosted shelf life. For example, in bologna, which is a large-diameter product, vacuum chopping is desirable to get rid of air bubbles or pockets that could reason color fading and also a soft structure to the last product.

Binders or filler are typically used in the manufacturing of cured sausages and are normally made up of a mix of soy, cereals, and native and also modified starches. If a product is high in meat protein and also moisture however low in fat, then a high moisture-absorbing binder like starch deserve to be employed. However, in a product with greater fat content, such as a frankfurter, a high protein binder like soy or milk solids could be chosen. Sensible protein binders room binders wherein the protein has not to be denatured throughout their manufacturing and also thereby bestow properties to the meat matrix. The benefits of adding functional binders to a formulation include the following: increased protein level, enhanced texture, reduction in shrinkage, and also overall juiciness and cohesiveness to the product.

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Once the batter is ready, it requirements to it is in stuffed right into a casing. There are special machines designed because that this purpose. First, the is essential that assets be stuffed in casings to their appropriate diameter so that they resemble the product lock are supposed to be. For example, one would certainly not ingredient the batter that a pepperoni stick into a salami casing and vice versa. In fact, frankfurters of a relatively large diameter casing, or in natural casings, are frequently referred to as wieners. Second, the product have to not be under or overstuffed in the casing. Understuffing usually outcomes in casings with wrinkles, conversely, overstuffing can result in casing breakage during thermal processing. Many casing suppliers administer guidelines of encourage stuffing diameters because that products and these take right into account shrinkage after ~ cooking. Finally, stuffed products are held on trucks because that thermal processing and also smoking in an oven/smokehouse. Some meat plants are so advanced that they have continuous processing lines because that frankfurter production. After thermal processing, the meat product is chilled, and when ready, it is peeled native its casing, packaged, and also shipped come market.