This essay from MiniTool will introduce you through 20 major components of a motherboard together with their simple information including their functions.

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According to Wikipedia, a motherboard is the main printed circuit plank (PCB) in common computers (both desktops and laptops) and other expandable systems. It is additionally known together a mainboard, main circuit board, mechanism board, baseboard, reasonable board, planar board or mobo.

Motherboard Components and Their Functions

There are many contents found in a motherboard. Some of them room major motherboard components when others room not. The adhering to is a motherboard materials list.

20 significant Motherboard Components

CPU (Central handling Unit) chipRAM (Random accessibility Memory) slotsSouthbridge/northbridgeBIOS (Basic Input/Output System)I/O portUSB (Universal Serial Bus)CPU slotPCI (Peripheral ingredient Interconnect) slotAGP (Accelerated graphic Port) slotISA (Industry typical Architecture) slotParallel portFDC (Floppy-Disk Controller)IDE (Integrated drive Electronics) controllerCMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide-semiconductor) batteryPower supply connectorMouse and also keyboard portsDIP (Dual In-line Package) switchJumperHeat sink/heatsink (cooling system)Clock generator

1. CPU (Central handling Unit) chip

CPU is the digital circuitry in a computer system that executes indict that consist of a program. The is additionally known together a central processor or the main processor. The CPU executes the straightforward logic, arithmetic, controlling and also input/output (I/O) operations specified by the accuse in the desktop computer programs.

2. Lamb (Random accessibility Memory) slots

RAM is a kind of computer system memory that deserve to be read and also written. The is mainly used to save data and an equipment code. A RAM device permits data come be read or written in virtually the exact same amount that time no matter where the data’s physical location is in the memory. Compared to the direct-access storage gadgets like difficult drives, CD/DVD and magnetic tapes, lamb media is much quicker for data reading and also writing.

3. Southbridge/northbridge

They room the 2 chips in the core logic chipset on the motherboard. Typically, the southbridge implements the slow capabilities of the motherboard in a northbridge/southbridge chipset computer architecture.

The northbridge, additionally known as organize bridge or storage Controller Hub, is associated directly come the CPU via the front-side bus (FSB). The is responsible for tasks requiring the highest possible performance. In addition to the southbridge, they regulate communications between the CPU and other motherboard components.

4. BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)

BIOS, likewise called device BIOS, pc BIOS or ROM BIOS, is firmware that is used to perform hardware initialization throughout the booting process; and to carry out runtime solutions for operating system and programs. The BIOS firmware is the first software come run once powered on; it is re-installed on a PC’s device board.

5. I/O port

Input/output ports space the connections in between the CPU and also peripheral devices on a motherboard. There room two complementary techniques to perform input and also output processes: memory-mapped I/O (MMIO) and also port-mapped I/O (PMIO). Alternatively, you have the right to use committed I/O processors, called networks on mainframe computers, i beg your pardon execute their own instructions. 

6. USB (Universal Serial Bus)

USB is an sector standard the creates specifications because that connectors, cables and also protocols for connection; strength supply (interfacing) and also communication amongst computers, computer system peripherals and other desktops. There room a good many USB hardware consisting of several various connectors, of i m sorry USB-C is the recent kind.

7. CPU slot

A CPU slot, also called a CPU socket or Processor socket, has one or an ext mechanical components that carry out mechanical and electrical connections in between the PCB and also a microprocessor (CPU). Therefore, you can install a CPU top top a motherboard without soldering.

8. PCI (Peripheral ingredient Interconnect) slot

Peripheral ingredient Interconnect is a local computer bus because that connecting hardware to a computer. That supports all the functions of a processor bus. PCI is typically been dubbed Conventional PCI to differentiate it indigenous its follower PCI express (PCIe, PCI-e or PCI-E).

PCI refer is a high-speed serial computer system expansion bus typical designed to change the larger PCI, PCI-X and also AGP bus standard. It is a general-use motherboard user interface for the graphic card, SSDs, difficult drives, Wi-Fi and Ethernet hardware connections.


9. AGP (Accelerated graphic Port) slot

AGP was designed together a high-speed point-to-point channel for connecting a video clip card (graphics card) to a computer system. Primarily, it was supplied to assist in the acceleration that 3D computer graphics. AGP is originally designed to be a descendant of the PCI series of relationships for video clip cards. Yet, the was changed by the PCIe slots.

10. ISA (Industry standard Architecture) slot

ISA is the 16-bit internal bus of IMB PC/AT and comparable computers that are based upon Intel 80286 and its instant successors throughout the 1980s. It was backward compatible v the 8-bit bus that the 8088-based IBM pc largely.

There as soon as was an attempt to extend ISA into a 32-bit bus, referred to as Extended market Standard architecture (EISA). The attempt wasn’t an extremely successful and the EISA was mostly replaced by the later VESA neighborhood Bus and the PCI bus.

11. Parallel port

A parallel harbor is a sort of user interface for it is registered peripherals on desktops. The surname of this sort of port is acquired from the means the data is sent. The is, the parallel port send many bits the data in ~ the exact same time. Serial interfaces, on the contrary, send bits one data at once. To achieve parallel data transfer, there room multiple data present in the parallel harbor cables. The parallel harbor cable is bigger than the cable that a modern serial port, which only has actually one data line within. 


12. FDC (Floppy-Disk Controller)

FDC is a special-purpose chip and also associated disc controller circuitry. The controls and directs reading from and also writing come a computer’s floppy disk drive (FDD).

13. Principle (Integrated journey Electronics) controller

The tools used because that connecting IDE, Ethernet, FireWire, USB and also other systems can be called host adapter. So, the principle controller refers to the hold adapter. A hold adapter, also called a host controller or a organize bus adapter (HBA), associate a computer system (acting together the organize system) to various other network and storage devices.


14. CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide-semiconductor) battery

CMOS battery, also called memory battery, clock battery or real-time clock (RTC), is normally a CR2032 lithium coin cell. The expectation of the CMOS battery is approximated to be 3 years when the strength supply unit (PSU) is unplugged or move off.

15. Strength supply connector

A strength supply gives the necessary electric power to let the computer to work. That takes conventional 110-Volt AC (Alternative Current) power to DC (Direct Current) power of 12 Volt, 5 Volt, 3.3 Volt, etc.

16. Mouse and keyboard ports

All computers have a key-board port associated directly to the motherboard. There room two species of connectors. The earliest one is a distinct DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung) connector if the newest one is the mini DIN PS/2-style connector. Many PCs usage the PS/2-style connectors because that both keyboard and also mouse; and also the connectors are marked clearly for different usage.

17. Emboldened (Dual In-line Package) switch

A DIP switch is a manual electrical switch packaged v others in a standard double in-line package. The term may refer come an individual move or the entirety unit. The DIP move is designed come be used on a printed circuit board (motherboard) along with other electronic motherboard components. The is usually provided to customize the actions of one electronic an equipment for certain situations.

18. Jumper

A jumper is a brief length the conductor that is offered to close, open up or bypass part of an digital circuit. Typically, jumpers are provided to collection up or configure printed circuit boards prefer the motherboard.

19. Warm sink/heatsink (cooling system)

A warmth sink is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat produced by parts of motherboard into a liquid medium choose liquid or air. The fluid medium will certainly dissipate away from the device. Thus, the temperature that the maker is retained within a bearable range. Top top the motherboard, the heatsink is usually provided to cool CPU, GPU (graphics processing unit), chipsets and RAM modules.

20. Clock generator

A clock generator is an electronic oscillator (circuit) that produces a clock signal for usage in synchronizing a circuit’s operation. The clock signal ranges between high and also low frequencies, thus producing a metronome because that the coordination the actions.

What are the two Main contents on the Motherboard?

 After analysis the over contents, you can number out that the 2 main components on the motherboard are CPU and RAM. They likewise list in the an initial two areas in the above. Actually, the over motherboard components are noted mainly based upon their importance on the motherboard. Yet, that is simply our personal opinion. Those components’ prestige is different in various situations.



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Graduate from college in 2014 and also step in work-related as a tech editor the very same year. Writings involve greatly in tough disk management and also computer data backup and recovery. Through the years of diving deep in computer technology, Helen has effectively helped thousands of users fixed their stroked nerves problems.

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