Read this write-up to learn around the following three necessary tools of gaue won analysis, i.e., (a) Comparative gaue won Statements, (b) typical Size Statements, and also (c) trend Ratios or Percentages.

1. Preparation of Comparative gaue won Statements:

Comparative gaue won Statements refer to the declaration of financial place of a business, which are all set in such a means as to carry out a time view to the various elements embodied in the jae won statements.

These statements incorporate two varieties of analytical statements. They are Comparative Balance Sheets and Comparative earnings Statement. In this statements figures are placed side by next for two or more periods in order come facilitate comparison.

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They likewise facilitate comparison among two or an ext firms that belong to the same industry. Comparison might be about to profitability and financial soundness.

Preparation that Comparative financial Statements:

Comparative declaration mainly present the adhering to information for analytical purposes:

(a) really data in pure money values, as provided in the jae won statements because that the durations under consideration.

(b) boosts or to reduce in assorted items in money values, and also


(c) increases or decreases in miscellaneous items in terms of percentages

The following instances would show the method of ready of a compare Balance Sheet and a Comparative earnings Statement v imaginary figures:



Tentative Conclusions:

Total fixed assets have been included during the year 2002 through Rs.55 lakhs contrasted to 2001, because that which permanent investments worth Rs.50 lakhs have actually been realized. The level of existing assets precious Rs.42 lakhs has actually been reduced.


Despite the rise in addressed assets, the complete assets have been diminished by Rs.37 lakhs. It suggests that the enhancement to solved assets has been partially financed by the sale or reduction of other assets.

Increase in addressed assets and decrease in present assets reflect a bad financial policy. The relationship in between the full current assets and also total existing liabilities is no satisfactory.

Increase in the preference share capital of Rs.100 lakhs could have been due to the fresh problem of shares because that the redemption the debentures. Also, the rise in reserves may represent the redemption of debentures out of profits.

Comparative earnings Statement:


Similar to the compare Balance Sheet, the Comparative income Statement contains the same columns and also supplies the same form of information.

It is illustrated below:

The Comparative earnings Statement explains the relationship in between sales and cost of items sold and also its impact on gross profit. Boost in offering expenses and office and management expenses relating to the increase in sale must not be proportional.

This will certainly indicate plainly the effectiveness of work by showing transforms in absolute figures and also in terms of percentage of the operating earnings from one period to another.


The carriers Act that India insists that companies should give figures for different items because that the vault year in addition to the present year’s figures in the Profit and also Loss account and also Balance Sheet.




While network sales have actually increased through 33.33%, the cost of items sold has actually increased through 25%. The percent of profits has actually increased through 50%. The rise in total operating costs is 25% only, which has increased the network operating earnings by 56.25%. The in its entirety performance in 2002 is satisfactory contrasted to 2001.


The main limitation that Comparative gaue won Statements is that they failure to display the changes that have actually taken place from year come year in relationship to full assets, full liabilities and also capital or total net sales. Common-size evaluation eliminates this limitation.

2. Ready Common-Size Statements:

Common-size financial Statements space those declaration in which items report in the jae won statements are converted into percentages taking some common base. In the Common-size revenue Statement, the net sales are assumed to it is in 100% and also other items are expressed together a percent of sales.

Similarly in the Common-size Balance paper the total assets or total liabilities space assumed to it is in 100% and also other item of assets and liabilities are expressed as a percentage of this complete .

Common- size statements are additionally called together “Component Statements” or “100 every cent Statement” because each explain is reduced to the total of 100 and also each separation, personal, instance item is expressed together a portion of this total.



The ready of Common-size statement is shown below based on the imaginary figures used in the instances of Comparative jae won Statements:




The percentage of resolved assets to full assets boosted from 58.83% in 2001 to 63% in 2002. In ~ the very same time the percent of present assets diminished from 30.47% come 28.31%. This indicates a poor current assets monitoring policy.

The value of invest has also decreased from 10.70% to 8.19%, which may be in order to finance the rise in resolved assets. The choice share resources has boosted from 10.70% come 16.37% and also reserves indigenous 10.69% to 13.64% however at the exact same time, the long-term as well as the current liabilities to full liabilities has come down from 51.87% come 42.72%.


Compared to total current legal responsibility the total current assets are inadequate. Hence, the working funding position is no satisfactory. In basic the financial plan of the problem is extremely unsatisfactory.



The gross benefit percentage has increased indigenous 33.33 come 37.50. This increase is much more than proportionate contrasted to sales. This is since the increase in expense of items sold is less than proportional.

Similarly the net profit percent has additionally increased indigenous 26.67 to 31.25. In general, the in its entirety operating performance of the organization is highly satisfactory.

3. Trend Percentages or Ratios:

Trend evaluation refers to the comparison of previous data over a duration of time through that that a basic year. Under this method, portion relationship the each declare item bear to the same item in the basic year is calculated.

Any year i.e., the more quickly year involved in comparison, or the latest year, or any kind of intervening year, might be taken as the basic year. Together the function of this analysis is to highlight some crucial changes, the trend percentages space calculated only for some essential items that have the right to be linked with each other.


The involved item in the basic year is taken to be same to as 100 and also then based upon this, trend percentages for the equivalent items in various other years are calculated.

This an approach is a horizontal kind of analysis of financial statements. The trend percentages are shown in comparative financial statements. Trend evaluation is a advantageous tool for the management due to the fact that it reduces large amount of pure data into a basic and conveniently readable form. By looking at the trend in a specific ratio one have the right to see whether the ratio is boosting or diminish or continuing to be constant. Native this a trouble is uncovered and an excellent management is observed.

Precautions to be taken:

1. The base year selected must be normal and be important representative of all years affiliated in the analysis.

2. The jae won statements used for the evaluation must have been prepared using consistent accounting principles and practices.

3. The numbers of the various bookkeeping statements thought about for the evaluation should be readjusted for any type of price level changes, as compared to basic year, prior to computing trend percentages.


4. Trend percentages have to be studied in addition to the absolute figures on i beg your pardon they are based. This will permit us to recognize whether the change is far-ranging or not.

For example, one article may increase from Rs.100 to Rs.200 and also the various other item may change from Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 14,000 . Of this two, the adjust in the very first item is not significant compared to the second item.

The trend ratios for the heritage of a balance sheet space illustrated listed below with imaginary figures:



A separate tower for the base year <1999> need not be listed in the compare balance sheet.


From the above statement that is clear that both the solved assets and also current assets have registered raising trend. This is one indication that the company’s expansion over the period.

Similar come this analysis, trend percentages deserve to be computed for the important items that the liabilities next of the balance sheet and of the revenue Statement.

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Illustration 1:


Comment upon the far-reaching changes that have taken place throughout the year 2002.





Individual and total present assets have lessened in 2002 when compared to 2001. The complete current heritage have reduced by 34%. Investments have additionally decreased through 37%.

Amounts realized from the assets have been largely used come repay current liabilities and also the balance supplied for the purchase of solved assets. Resolved assets, particularly buildings have actually increased considerably by 146% and other assets by 32%.

It is heartening to keep in mind that this assets have been funded with the issue of debentures by 63% and also equity and surplus by 65%. Generally, there is an as whole increase in complete assets in 2002 over 2001 just by 20%.

Illustration 2:

From the following Income statements of alphabet Ltd., prepare a Comparative income Statement:

Income Statements for the year finishing 31st December 2001 and also 2002




Illustration 3:

Convert the adhering to Income declare into usual Size Statement and also interpret the transforms in 2002 in the light of problems in 2001:




The evaluation of the above income statement permits to attract the following conclusions:

(a) throughout the year 2002 the price of products sold has decreased by 4.5% i.e., from 60.7% come 56.2%. This decline may be as result of the diminish in expense of life materials. Owing to this decline, the gross profit ratio has increased native 39.3% to 43.8%.

(b) The operating expenses have decreased by 2.3%, which shows high operation efficiency and also economy in expenditure; both administrative and also selling prices have decreased less 보다 proportionately in spite of the boost in this items in absolute amounts.

(c) The linked effect of decrease in cost of goods sold and also operating prices has led to for boost in network operating revenue by 6.8% i.e., indigenous 9.3% in 2001 come 16.1% in 2002.

(d) The increase in non-operating earnings is a welcome feature while the matching increase in non-operating prices proportionately is not desirable.

As last conclusion, it may be stated that the firm has been operating an ext efficiently in 2002 as contrasted to 2001.

Illustration 4:

From the complying with information, analyze the outcomes of operations of a manufacturing worry using tendency ratios:





From the over statement, the is watched that the sales, price of goods sold and also operating expenses have decreased in 2000 when compared to base year 1999. Yet one important allude that the decrease in sales is comparatively much less than the cost and also operating expenses.

On the various other hand, the sales, cost and also operating expenses have all enhanced in 2001 and also 2002 as contrasted tol999. However the boost in cost and operating expenses is lesser than the increase in sales.

As a conclusion we might infer indigenous these tendency ratios that a larger section of price of goods and operating prices is fixed and also they space not affected by change in sales volume. Because of this, we uncover that the net operating profit is an ext in 2001 and 2002 as compared to 1999.

Illustration 5:

Develop pro-forma revenue statement because that the month of April, May and June for a agency from the adhering to particulars:

(a) Sales space projected in ~ Rs. 4, 50,000, Rs. 4, 80,000 and Rs. 5, 00,000 for April, May and June respectively.

(b) price of products sold is Rs. 1, 00,000 add to 30% of offering price per month.

(c) rental is Rs. 15,000 every month. Management expenses because that April space expected to it is in Rs. 1, 20,000 but expected to increase 1% every month end the vault month’s expenses.