“My an initial issue of Kenyon Review came yestiddy and also I felt really learned sit down analysis it.” —Flannery O’Connor

Perhaps no writer has had actually a longer and an ext productive connection with The Kenyon Review 보다 Flannery O’Connor. Her first story to show up in the magazine was “The Life girlfriend Save might Be her Own,” which came out in the spring problem in 1953. O’Connor originally submitted the story as part of her application for The Kenyon testimonial Fellowship in Fiction, funded by the Rockefeller foundation and awarded to O’Connor because that the following two years by the magazine’s editor, john Crowe Ransom. Recently diagnosed v lupus, a debilitating autoimmune disease, O’Connor had moved home in 1951 come live v her mother on the family’s farm yard in Milledgeville, Georgia, and the fellowship helped to establish her together a major voice in American fiction at precisely the minute when she was forced to retract from the literary world. From 1953-1956, O’Connor released regularly in KR, including such major stories together “A circle in the Fire,” “The artificial Nigger,” “Greenleaf,” and “The Comforts the Home.” four of these stories – “The Life girlfriend Save might Be her Own,” “A one in the Fire,” and “The man-made Nigger,” and also “Greenleaf” – got O. Henry Awards.

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Born in Savannah, Georgia on march 25, 1925, Flannery O’Connor was a graduate of the Georgia State College for Women and also the college of Iowa Writer’s Workshop. She live for quick periods in new York and Connecticut, and also did a quick residence in ~ Yaddo, a writer’s nest in upstate new York, before returning house to Georgia when her health began to fail. Her an initial novel, Wise Blood, was released in 1952, and also her an initial collection the stories, A great Man Is hard To Find, in 1955. Her 2nd novel, The Violent Bear that Away, was published in 1960. She passed away on respectable 3, 1964, but her work ongoing to get acclaim after her death; she received the national Catholic book Award in 1966 for Everything that Rises have to Converge and the National book Award in 1971 because that The complete Stories that Flannery O’Connor.

The Life friend Save may Be your Own

The old woman and her daughter were sitting on their porch as soon as Mr. Shiftlet came up their road for the an initial time. The old woman slide to the edge of her chair and also leaned forward, shading her eyes native the piercing sunset v her hand. The daughter might not see far in prior of her and also continued to play through her fingers. Although the old woman resided in this desolate spot with just her daughter and she had never checked out Mr. Shiftlet before, she can tell, also from a distance, that he was a tramp and no one come be fear of. His left cloak sleeve was folded up to present there was only half an arm in it and also his gaunt figure provided slightly come the side as if the breeze to be pushing him. He had on a black city suit and also a brown feel hat the was turned increase in the front and also down in the earlier and he lugged a tin tool box by a handle. He come on, in ~ an amble, up she road, his challenge turned toward the sun which appeared to it is in balancing itself on the optimal of a tiny mountain.

The old mrs didn’t change her position until that was virtually into her yard; climate she rose with one hand fisted on she hip. The daughter, a large girl in a short blue organdy dress, witnessed him all at once and jumped up and began to rubber stamp and point and do excited speechless sounds.

Mr. Shiftlet stopped just inside the yard and set his box on the ground and also tipped his cap at her as if she were not in the the very least afflicted; climate he turned toward the old woman and swung the cap all the means off. He had actually long black color slick hair the hung flat from a component in the center to beyond the tips of his ears on either side. His challenge descended in forehead for an ext than half its length and ended suddenly v his functions just well balanced over a jutting steel-trap jaw. He seemed to be a young man yet he had actually a look at of written dissatisfaction together if he construed life thoroughly.

“Good evening,” the old mrs said. She was around the dimension of a cedar fence post and also she had actually a man’s gray cap pulled under low over she head.

The tramp was standing looking in ~ her and didn’t answer. That turned his ago and faced the sunset. He swung both his whole and also his quick arm up slowly so the they suggested an expanse of sky and his number formed a crooked cross. The old mrs watched him with her arms folded throughout her chest together if she to be the owner that the sun, and the daughter watched, she head thrust forward and her fat helpless hand hanging at the wrists. She had actually long pink-gold hair and also eyes together blue as a peacock’s neck.

He held the attitude for nearly fifty seconds and also then he picked up his box and also came on come the porch and dropped under on the bottom step. “Lady,” he stated in a firm nasal voice, “I’d provide a fortune come live wherein I can see me a sun carry out that every evening.”

“Does it every evening,” the old mrs said and also sat ago down. The daughter sat down too and also watched him through a mindful sly look as if he were a bird that had come up very close. That leaned to one side, rooting in his trousers pocket, and also in a second he brought out a parcel of chewing gum and offered her a piece. She take it it and also unpeeled it and also began come chew without acquisition her eyes turn off him. He offered the old mrs a piece however she only raised her upper lip to suggest she had no teeth.

Mr. Shiftlet’s pale spicy glance had currently passed over every little thing in the yard-the pump close to the comer of the house and also the big fig tree that three or 4 chickens were preparing come roost in-and had moved to a burned where he experienced the square rusted back of an automobile. “You ladies drive?” that asked.

“That automobile ain’t run in fifteen year,” the old woman said. “The day my husband died, it quit running.”

“Nothing is like it provided to be, lady,” he said. “The people is almost rotten.”

“That’s right,” the old woman said. “You from approximately here?”

“Name Tom T. Shiftlet,” that murmured, looking at the tires.

“I’m pleasure to fulfill you,” the old mrs said. “Name Lucynell Crater and daughter Lucynell Crater. What friend doing around here, Mr. Shiftlet?”

He judged the vehicle to be around a 1928 or ’29 Ford. “‘Lady,” the said, and also turned and also gave she his full attention, “lemme tell you something. There’s among these medical professionals in Atlanta that’s take away a knife and also cut the human heart-the person heart,” the repeated, leaning forward, “out of a man’s chest and held the in his hand,” and also he held his hand out, palm up, together if it to be slightly weighted v the human heart, “and learned it like it to be a day-old chicken, and also lady,” he said, enabling a long significant pause in which his head slid forward and his clay-colored eyes brightened, “he don’t understand no much more about it 보다 you or me.”

“That’s right,” the old mrs said.

“Why, if he was to take the knife and also cut right into every corner of it, he still wouldn’t understand no much more than friend or me. What you want to bet?”

“Nothing,” the old woman stated wisely. “Where friend come from, Mr. Shiftlet?”

He didn’t answer. He reached into his pocket and also brought the end a sack of tobacco and also a parcel of tobacco papers and also rolled self a cigarette, expertly with one hand, and attached that in a hanging position to his top lip. Climate he take it a crate of wooden matches indigenous his pocket and also struck one top top his shoe. He held the burning enhance as if he were examining the mystery of flame while it traveled dangerously toward his skin. The daughter started to make loud noises and also to point to his hand and also shake she finger in ~ him, yet when the flame was just prior to touching him, the leaned down with his hand cupped end it as if he to be going to set fire to his nose and also lit the cigarette.

He flipped far the dead match and blew a stream of gray into the evening. A sly look came over his face. “Lady,” he said, “nowadays, people’ll execute anything anyways. I deserve to tell girlfriend my name is Tom T. Shiftlet and I come indigenous Tarwater, Tennessee, yet you never have seen me before: exactly how you know I ain’t lying? just how you know my surname ain’t Aaron Sparks, lady, and I come native Singleberry, Georgia, or just how you know it’s not George Speeds and I come from Lucy, Alabama, or just how you understand I ain’t Thompson Bright indigenous Toolafalls, Mississippi?”

“I don’t recognize nothing around you,” the old woman muttered, irked.

“Lady,” that said, “people don’t treatment how they lie. Probably the ideal I have the right to tell friend is, I’m a man; but listen lady,” that said and paused and made his tone much more ominous still, “what is a man?”

The old woman started to gum a seed. “What you carry in that tin box, Mr. Shiftlet?” she asked.

“Tools,” the said, put back. “I’m a carpenter.”

“Well, if friend come out here to work, I’ll be able to feed you and give friend a location to sleep yet I can’t pay. I’ll tell friend that before you begin,” she said.

There to be no answer in ~ once and also no details expression top top his face. That leaned back versus the two-by-four that helped support the porch roof. “Lady,” he claimed slowly, “there’s some men that some things mean much more to them 보다 money.” The old woman rocked without comment and also the daughter watched the create that moved up and down in his neck. That told the old mrs then the all most people were interested in to be money, but he asked what a man was make for. The asked her if a man was created money, or what. That asked she what she assumed she to be made for however she didn’t answer, she only sat rocking and also wondered if a one-armed man could put a new roof on her garden house. He asked a the majority of questions that she didn’t answer. He told her the he to be twenty-eight years old and also had lived a differed life. He had actually been a gospel singer, a foreman top top the railroad, an assistant in an undertaking parlor, and also he had actually come end the radio for three months v Uncle Roy and his Red Creek Wranglers. He said he had fought and also bled in the Arm service of his country and visited every foreign land and also that everywhere he had seen world that didn’t care if they did a point one way or another. He said he hadn’t been increased thataway.

A fat yellow moon appeared in the branches the the fig tree as if it to be going to roost there v the chickens. He stated that a man had to escape come the nation to see the world whole and also that the wished he lived in a desolate location like this whereby he could see the sunlight go under every evening choose God do it to do.

“Are friend married or are you single?” the old woman asked.

There was a long silence. “Lady,” that asked finally, “where would certainly you discover you an chaste woman today’? ns wouldn’t have any of this rubbish I could just pick up.”

The daughter to be leaning an extremely far down, hanging her head practically between her knees, city hall him v a triangular door she had actually made in her overturned hair; and also she suddenly dropped in a heap ~ above the floor and also began come whimper. Mr. Shiftlet straightened her out and helped her get earlier in the chair.

“Is she her baby girl?” he asked.

“My only,” the old mrs said, “and she’s the sweetest girl in the world. Ns wouldn’t provide her up because that nothing on earth. She’s smart too. She deserve to sweep the floor, cook, wash, feeding the chickens, and hoe. I wouldn’t give her up for a casket the jewels.”

“No,” he claimed kindly, “don’t ever let any type of man take she away indigenous you.”

“Any male come after her,” the old mrs said, ” ‘ll need to stay about the place.”

Mr. Shiftlet’s eye in the darkness was focused on a component of the auto bumper the glittered in the distance. “Lady,” he said, jerking his short arm up as if he could suggest with the to her house and yard and pump, “there ain’t a damaged thing top top this plantation that i couldn’t deal with for you, one-arm jackleg or not. I’m a man,” he claimed with a sullen dignity, “even if ns ain’t a entirety one. I got,” that said, tapping his knuckles top top the floor to emphasize the immensity of what he to be going to say, “a moral intelligence!” and also his challenge pierced the end of the darkness into a pillar of doorlight and also he stared at her as if he to be astonished self at this impossible truth.

The old woman was no impressed through the phrase. “I told girlfriend you might hang around and work for food,” she said, “if girlfriend don’t mind sleeping in that auto yonder.”

“Why listen, Lady,” he said with a grin that delight, “the monks the old slept in your coffins!”

“They wasn’t as progressed as we are,” the old mrs said.

The next morning he began on the roof of the garden house while Lucynell, the daughter, satellite on a rock and watched that work. He had actually not been approximately a week before the adjust he had made in the place was apparent. He had actually patched the front and ago steps, built a new hog pen, restored a fence, and taught Lucynell, that was completely deaf and had never said a indigenous in her life, to say words “bird.”

The large rosy-faced girl adhered to him everywhere, speak “Burrttddt ddbirrrttdt,” and also clapping she hands. The old mrs watched from a distance, secretly pleased. She was ravenous for a son-in-law.

Mr. Shiftlet slept ~ above the tough narrow back seat the the car with his feet out the side window. He had actually his razor and also a have the right to of water top top a crate that offered him together a bedside table and also he placed up a piece of mirror against the back glass and kept his coat neatly on a hanger that he hung over one of the windows.

In the night he sat on the steps and talked when the old woman and also Lucynell rocked violently in their chairs ~ above either side of him. The old woman’s three hills were black versus the dark blue sky and were checked out off and also on by miscellaneous planets and by the moon after it had left the chickens. Mr. Shiftlet mentioned that the reason he had actually improved this plantation was due to the fact that he had taken a personal interest in it. He stated he was also going to do the auto run.

He had raised the hood and studied the mechanism and he stated he could tell that the auto had been developed in the days once cars were yes, really built. “You take now,” that said, “one male puts in one bolt and also another male puts in an additional bolt and another guy puts in another bolt so that it’s a male for a bolt. That’s why you need to ‘pay so lot for a car: she paying all those men. Now if friend didn’t need to pay however one man, you could get girlfriend a cheaper car and also one that had had a personal interest bring away in it, and it would certainly be a much better car.” The old mrs agreed v him the this to be so.

Mr. Shiftlet said that the trouble through the world was that nobody cared, or stopped and also took any type of trouble. He stated he never would have actually been able come teach Lucynell to say a native if the hadn’t cared and stopped long enough.

“Teach she to to speak something else,” the old mrs said.

“What you want her come say next?” Mr. Shiftlet asked.

The old woman’s smile was wide and toothless and suggestive. “Teach her to say ‘sugarpie,"” she said.

Mr. Shiftlet currently knew what was on she mind.

The next day he started to tinker v the automobile and also that night he said her that if she would buy a fan belt, he would have the ability to make the car run.

The old woman claimed she would provide him the money. “You see that girl yonder?” she asked, pointing come Lucynell who was sit on the floor a foot away, the town hall him, her eyes blue even in the dark. “If that was ever a male wanted to take her away, I would certainly say, ‘No male on planet is going come take that sweet girl that mine away from me!’ however if he was to say, ‘Lady, ns don’t desire to take she away, I desire her appropriate here,’ I would certainly say, ‘Mister, i don’t blame friend none. I wouldn’t happen up a opportunity to live in a irreversible place and get the sweet girl in the civilization myself. Friend ain’t no fool,’ I would say.”

“How old is she?” Mr. Shiftlet inquiry casually.

“Fifteen, sixteen,” the old woman said. The girl was virtually thirty but since of she innocence it was difficult to guess.

“It would certainly be a great idea to paint it too,” Mr. Shiftlet remarked. “You don’t want it to rust out.”

“We’ll see about that later,” the old mrs said.

The next day he walked into town and also returned v the parts he needed and a have the right to of gasoline. So late in the afternoon, terrible noises issued indigenous the shed and also the old woman rushed out of the house, thinking Lucynell to be somewhere having a fit. Lucynell to be sitting top top a chicken crate, stamping her feet and also screaming, “Burrddttt! bddurrddtttt!” however her fuss was drowned out by the car. With a volley the blasts it arised from the shed, moving in a fierce and stately way. Mr. Shiftlet remained in the driver’s seat, sitting really erect. He had actually an expression of serious modesty top top his confront as if he had actually just elevated the dead.

That night, rocking top top the porch, the old woman started her service at once. “You desire you an chaste woman, don’t you?” she inquiry sympathetically. “You don’t want none of this trash.”

“No’m, i don’t,” Mr. Shiftlet said.

“One that can’t talk,” she continued, “can’t sass you earlier or usage foul language. That’s the kind for you to have. Right there,” and also she pointed to Lucynell sitting cross-legged in her chair, holding both feet in her hands.

“That’s right,” that admitted. “She wouldn’t offer me any kind of trouble.”

“Saturday,” the old mrs said, “you and her and also me can drive into town and get married.”

Mr. Shiftlet eased his position on the steps.

“I can’t gain married appropriate now,” he said. “Everything you want to do takes money and I ain’t got any.”

“What you need with money?” she asked.

“It bring away money,” the said. “Some people’ll carry out anything anyhow these days, however the means I think, i wouldn’t marry no mrs that i couldn’t take it on a pilgrimage like she to be somebody. I median take she to a hotel and also treat her. Ns wouldn’t get married the Duchesser Windsor,” he stated firmly, “unless I might take her to a hotel and give she something good to eat.

“I was raised thataway and there ain’t a thing I deserve to do around it. Mine old mother taught me how to do.”

“Lucynell don’t also know what a hotel is,” the old mrs muttered. “Listen here, Mr. Shiftlet,” she said, slide forward in her chair, “you’d be acquiring a permanent house and also a deep well and also the many innocent girl in the world. You don’t need no money. Lemme tell friend something: there ain’t any kind of place in the world for a negative disabled friendless drifting man.”

The ugly words resolved in Mr. Shiftlet’s head like a team of buzzards in the height of a tree. The didn’t answer in ~ once. The rolled himself a cigarette and also lit it and also then he claimed in an even voice, “Lady, a male is divided into 2 parts, body and also spirit.”

The old mrs clamped her gums together.

“Listen, Mr. Shiftlet,” she said, “my well never goes dry and my house is always warm in the winter and there’s no mortgage top top a thing around this place. You can go come the courthouse and also see because that yourself and yonder under that melted is a well automobile.” She laid the bait carefully. “You can have it painted by Saturday. I’ll pay for the paint.”

In the darkness, Mr. Shiftlet’s smile stretched choose a weary snake waking up by a fire. ~ a 2nd he recalled himself and said, “I’m just saying a man’s spirit method more to him than anything else. I would have to take my wife off for the week finish without no regards at all for cost. I gained to follow whereby my spirit claims to go.”

“I’ll give you fifteen dollars for a week-end trip,” the old woman claimed in a crabbed voice. “That’s the ideal I can do.”

“That wouldn’t hardly salary for much more than the gas and also the hotel,” that said. “It wouldn’t feed her.”

“Seventeen-fifty,” the old woman said. “That’s all I obtained so it isn’t any type of use friend trying come milk me. You can take a lunch.”

Mr. Shiftlet was deeply hurt by words “milk.” that didn’t doubt the she had much more money sewed up in her mattress yet he had currently told her he was not interested in she money. “I’ll make that do,” the said and rose and also walked off without treating with her further.

On Saturday the three of lock drove right into town in the auto that the paint had actually barely dried on and Mr. Shiftlet and also Lucynell to be married in the Ordinary’s office when the old mrs witnessed. Together they came out the the courthouse, Mr. Shiftlet started twisting his neck in his collar. That looked morose and bitter together if he had actually been insulted when someone organized him. “That didn’t accomplish me none,” that said. “That was just something a woman in an office did, nothing but file work and blood tests. What carry out they know about my blood? If they to be to take my heart and also cut that out,” he said, “they wouldn’t know a thing about me. It didn’t meet me at all.”

“It to solve the law,” the old woman claimed sharply.

‘The law,” Mr. Shiftlet said and spit. “It’s the law that don’t satisfy me.”

He had painted the automobile dark eco-friendly with a yellow band about it just under the windows. The 3 of lock climbed in the front seat and also the old mrs said, “Don’t Lucynell watch pretty? Looks favor a infant doll.” Lucynell was dressed up in a white dress that her mother had actually uprooted from a trunk and also there was a Panama hat on her head v a bunch the red wooden cherries top top the brim. Every now and then she placid expression was readjusted by a sly isolated tiny thought prefer a shoot of eco-friendly in the desert. “You obtained a prize!” the old woman said.

Mr. Shiftlet didn’t also look in ~ her.

They drove back to the home to let the old mrs off and pick up the lunch. When they were all set to leave, she stand staring in the window of the car, v her finger clenched approximately the glass. Tears started to seep sideways the end of she eyes and run follow me the dirty creases in she face. “I ain’t ever been parted through her for 2 days before,” she said.

Mr. Shiftlet started the motor.

“And i wouldn’t allow no man have her but you since I checked out you would carry out right. Good-by, Sugarbaby,” she said, clutching in ~ the sleeve that the white dress. Lucynell looked right at her and didn’t it seems to be ~ to see her there at all. Mr. Shiftlet eased the automobile forward so the she had actually to move her hands.

The early afternoon was clear and also open and surrounded by pale blue sky. Although the car would go just thirty miles an hour, Mr. Shiftlet imagined a terrific climb and also dip and swerve the went entirely to his head so that he forgot his morning bitterness. He had always wanted an auto but he had never been able to afford one before. The drove an extremely fast because he want to make Mobile by nightfall.

Occasionally he stopped his think long sufficient to look at Lucynell in the seat beside him. She had consumed the having lunch as shortly as they were out of the yard and now she to be pulling the cherries off the hat one by one and also throwing them the end the window. He ended up being depressed despite the car. He had actually driven about a hundreds miles once he decided that she must be hungry again and also at the next little town they come to, he quit in front of an aluminum-painted eating place called The hot Spot and took her in and also ordered her a plate of ham and grits. The ride had actually made her sleepy and as soon as she obtained up ~ above the stool, she rested her head top top the counter and shut she eyes. Over there was no one in The hot Spot however Mr. Shiftlet and the young behind the counter, a pale youth v a greasy rag hung over his shoulder. Prior to he could dish up the food, she was snoring gently.

“Give it come her when she wakes up,” Mr. Shiftlet said. “I’ll pay because that it now.”

The boy bent end her and also stared at the long pink-gold hair and also the half-shut sleeping eyes. Climate he looked up and also stared at Mr. Shiftlet. “She looks like an angel of Gawd,” the murmured.

“Hitch-hiker,” Mr. Shiftlet explained. “I can’t wait. I gained to make Tuscaloosa.”

The boy bent over again and very carefully touched his finger come a strand the the gold hair and Mr. Shiftlet left.

He was much more depressed than ever before as he drove on through himself. The late afternoon had actually grown hot and also sultry and the country had planarization out. Deep in the sky a storm was preparing very slowly and without thunder together if it meant to drainpipe every drop of waiting from the earth prior to it broke. There to be times when Mr. Shiftlet wanted not to it is in alone. The felt as well that a male with a auto had a duty to others and he kept his eye the end for a hitch-hiker. Sometimes he witnessed a authorize that warned: “Drive carefully. The life girlfriend save may be your own.”

The narrow roadway dropped turn off on either side into dry fields and here and also there a shack or a filling terminal stood in a clearing. The sun started to collection directly in former of the automobile. It was a reddening ball that through his windshield to be slightly flat on the bottom and also top. He witnessed a boy in overalls and a gray cap standing ~ above the edge of the road and he slowed the vehicle down and also stopped in front of him. The young didn’t have his hand elevated to thumb the ride, he was only standing there, however he had actually a small cardboard suitcase and also his cap was collection on his head in a way to suggest that he had left somewhere because that good. “Son,” Mr. Shiftlet said, “I check out you want a ride.”

The young didn’t speak he go or that didn’t yet he opened up the door the the car and got in, and also Mr. Shiftlet started driving again. The child organized the suitcase ~ above his lap and folded his eight on top of it. He turned his head and looked the end the home window away from Mr. Shiftlet. Mr. Shiftlet feel oppressed. “Son,” he said after a minute, “I obtained the finest old mom in the people so ns reckon friend only gained the second best.”

The boy provided him a fast dark glance and also then turned his face ago out the window.

“It’s nothing so sweet,” Mr. Shiftlet continued, “as a boy’s mother. She taught him his very first prayers at she knee, she provide him love once no other would, she told him what was right and what wasn’t, and she seen that he done the appropriate thing. Son,” the said, “I never rued a work in mine life choose the one i rued once I left that old mother of mine.”

The young shifted in his seat yet he didn’t look at Mr. Shiftlet. He unravelled his arms and also put one hand ~ above the door handle.

“My mother was a angel of Gawd,” Mr. Shiftlet stated in a really strained voice. “He took her from heaven and also giver come me and also I left her.” His eyes were soon clouded over v a mist that tears. The auto was barely moving.

The young turned angrily in the seat. “You go to the devil!” the cried. “My old mrs is a flea bag and yours is a stinking pole cat!” and also with that he flung the door open and jumped out v his suitcase right into the ditch.

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Mr. Shiftlet to be so shocked the for about a hundred feet that drove along slowly with the door stiff open. A cloud, the exact shade of the boy’s hat and also shaped favor a turnip, had descended end the sun, and also another, worse looking, crouched behind the car. Mr. Shiftlet felt the the rottenness of the human being was about to engulf him. He elevated his arm and let it autumn again come his breast. “Oh Lord!” he prayed. “Break forth and also wash the slime from this earth!”

The turnip ongoing slowly come descend. After ~ a couple of minutes there to be a guffawing peal the thunder native behind and an excellent raindrops, choose tin-can tops, crashed over the rear of Mr. Shiftlet’s car. An extremely quickly that stepped top top the gas and also with his stump sticking out the window he raced the galloping shower right into Mobile.


Like many of O’Connor’s best stories, “The Life you Save may Be your Own” is structured by a collection of unresolved tensions in between symbolism and realism, comedy and also tragedy, spirit and flesh, faith and also pain. Numerous students room tempted by the O’Connor’s religious symbolism right into searching for clearly Christian themes, just to discover themselves perplexed by the brutality the O’Connor’s vision and also voice. Her fiction solicits this symbolic readings v its comprehensive use of spiritual imagery, just to betray the belief readers put in these images: Mr. Shiftlet is a carpenter who creates a cross through his body together he gazes in ~ the sun, repair Mrs. Crater’s car and also drives it the end of the barn v “an expression of significant modesty ~ above his confront as if he had just elevated the dead,” preaches come the 2 women on the connection of the body and soul, abandons Lucynell – who looks “like an angel of Gawd” as she sleeps – at The hot Spot, and finally summons one apocalyptic storm to “break forth and wash the slime from this earth!”

Yet in the story’s last pages, O’Connor deflates her very own symbolism together Mr. Shiftlet’s action contradict his prophetic voice. Like Mr. Shiftlet, O’Connor’s fiction provides the language and imagery of religious faith while additionally insisting ~ above the hard-eyed realism that the “good nation people” that populate she stories. For this reason, she stories deserve to be basic to teach yet hard to teach well. Lock offer an object lesson for students ~ above the prestige of intricacy in both fiction and interpretation. Those who offer in to the temptation to read these stories simply through the religious symbolism find themselves in the same instance as Mrs. Crater, betrayed through devout language that hides the brutal shrewd of Mr. Shiftlet’s “moral intelligence.”

Discussion Questions

How execute the characters view every other? exactly how do this perceptions different from the method that the stare voice describes these characters?Mr. Shiftlet performs a collection of “resurrections” at the farm, patching the prior and back steps, building a brand-new hog pen, restoring a fence, and also teaching Lucynell come speak. How does she repetition of the one indigenous he has taught her together she complies with him roughly the farm contribute to the story’s imagery? What is the relationship in between her private symbol because that him (“Burrddtt!!”) and the story’s symbolism?Does Mr. Shiftlet live as much as the Christian symbols that surround him early in the story? What functions does that play for the 2 women in the story?O’Connor to be a devout Catholic, who defined her theme as “moments of Grace…prepared for by the intensity of angry circumstances.” execute you check out such moment of grace in this story? Where?Is it enough to check out Mr. Shiftlet together an anti-Christ, as some doubters have argued? In what sense can we speak to his betrayal of these females a type of salvation? native what does he save them?How have to we check out Mr. Shiftlet’s plot in the last paragraphs of the story? Why does he give the young a sermon top top the sweet of a mother’s love? What motivates his prayer because that a cleansing of the world? Does that lack any sense the culpability for his own actions?How would you define the tone of this story? Look carefully at the descriptions of the characters in the opened paragraphs, because that example, or Mrs. Crater’s responses come Shiftlet’s sermons. Those the connection of comedy and tragedy in the story? How can comedy add to the story’s “moral intelligence?”A variety of critics have described O’Connor’s fiction together “grotesque” in its emphasis on wretched lives and physical deformity. Others have argued that she provides wretchedness or physical imperfection together a authorize of elegant or “a touching of the human with the grotesque luminosity the the divine” (Frederick Asals, Flannery O’Connor: The creative thinking of Extremity). Have to we check out Shiftlet’s missing arm and Lucynell’s condition as grotesque or sacramental? can they be both?How walk O’Connor define the natural people in this story? What go this imagery include to the story’s meaning?O’Connor’s original title for this story to be “The civilization Is almost Rotten.” how does she decision to adjust the title transform your understanding of the story’s meaning? What walk the roadway sign Shiftlet passes close to the finish suggest around the opportunity of grace in the story?