The knee is consisted of of four bones. The femur or thighbone is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. The tibia or shinbone associate the knee to the ankle. The patella (kneecap) is the small bone in prior of the knee and also rides ~ above the knee joint as the knee bends. The fibula is a shorter and thinner bone running parallel to the tibia top top its outside. The joint acts like a hinge however with some rotation.

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The knee is a synovial joint, which method it is inside wall by synovium. The synovium produces fluid lubricating and nourishing the inside of the joint. Articular cartilage is the smooth surface at the end of the femur and tibia. It is the damages to this surface which causes arthritis.


The femur (thighbone) is the largest and also the the strongest bone in the body. That is the weight bearing bone that the thigh. It provides attachment to many of the muscles of the knee.


The two femoral condyles comprise for the rounded end of the femur. That is smooth articular surface permits the femur to move quickly over the tibial (shinbone) meniscus.


The tibia (shinbone), the second largest bone in the body, is the load bearing bone the the leg. The menisci incompletely cover the remarkable surface of the tibia where it articulates with the femur. The menisci act together shock absorbers, protecting the articular surface of the tibia and assisting in rotation of the knee.


The fibula, although not a load bearing bone, provides attachment sites for the Lateral collateral ligaments (LCL) and the biceps femoris tendon.

The articulation of the tibia and fibula also enables a slight level of movement, offering an aspect of versatility in an answer to the action of muscles attaching come the fibula.


The patella (kneecap), attached to the quadriceps tendon over and the patellar ligament below, rests versus the anterior articular surface ar of the lower end of the femur and protects the knee joint. The patella acts as a fulcrum because that the quadriceps by hold the quadriceps tendon turn off the lower end of the femur.


The medial and the lateral meniscus space thin C-shaped class of fibrocartilage, incompletely extending the surface of the tibia wherein it articulates with the femur. The bulk of the meniscus has no blood supply and also for that reason, as soon as damaged, the meniscus is unable to undergo the regular healing procedure that occurs in the remainder of the body. The menisci act as shock absorbers, protecting the articular surface of the tibia and assisting in rotation the the knee. As second stabilizers, the undamaged menisci communicate with the stabilizing function of the ligaments and are most efficient when the surrounding ligaments are intact.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the significant stabilizing ligament of the knee. The ACL is situated in the center of the knee joint and also runs from the femur (thigh bone) come the tibia (shin bone), v the facility of the knee. The ACL stays clear of the femur from slide backwards ~ above the tibia (or the tibia slide forwards on the femur). Together with the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), ACL stabilizes the knee in a rotational fashion. Thus, if among these ligaments is considerably damaged, the knee will be unstable as soon as planting the foot that the injured extremity and pivoting, bring about the knee to buckle and also give way.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)

Much less research has been done on the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) since it is injured much less frequently than the ACL.

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The PCL stays clear of the femur from moving too far forward over the tibia. The PCL is the knee’s basic stabilizer and is virtually twice as strong as the ACL. It offers a central axis around which the knee rotates.

Collateral Ligaments

Collateral Ligaments avoid hyperextension, adduction, and also abduction

Superficial MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) associate the medial epicondyle that the femur to the medial condyle that the tibia and resists valgus forceDeep MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) associate the medial epicondyle that the femur v the medial meniscusLCL (Lateral Collateral Ligament) totally separate indigenous the articular capsule, connect the lateral epicondyle that the femur to the head of the fibula and also resists varus force

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