Rhinoceroses are large, herbivorous mammals determined by your characteristic horned snouts. Words "rhinoceros" comes from the Greek "rhino" (nose) and "ceros" (horn). There space five types and 11 subspecies that rhino; some have actually two horns, when others have actually one.

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Because the animals" horns are used in people medicine for their claimed healing properties, rhinos have actually been hunted virtually to extinction. Their horns are sometimes sold together trophies or decorations, but more often they space ground up and used in classic Chinese medicine. The flour is often added to food or brewed in a tea in the belief that the horns are a an effective aphrodisiac, a hangover cure and treatment because that fever, rheumatism, gout and other disorders, follow to the international Rhino Foundation.

conservation status

Save the Rhino approximates that there to be 500,000 rhinos throughout Africa and Asia at the start of the 20th century. Today, the team says, there room 29,000 rhinos in the wild. Poaching and loss of habitat have put all rhino types in danger of extinction.

According to worldwide Union because that Conservation of Nature"s Red list of intimidated Species:


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A black rhino carcass through the horn hacked off. (Image credit: Lowveld Trust.)

In 2009, 4 northern white rhinos were moved from a zoo in the Czech Republic come a private conservancy in Kenya in the hope that they would breed, follow to the IUCN. On Oct. 18, 2014, Ol Pejeta Conservancy announced that among them, among the last two breeding males, had died. The was not a victim of poaching, however, and the conservancy was investigating the cause of death. On in march 20, 2018, the conservancy announced the death of the last male north white rhino, Sudan.


There are currently only two northern white rhinos left in the world, both living in captivity, according to the people Wildlife Fund. The captive north white rhinos room two females — Najin, Sudan"s daughter, and also Fatu, Najin"s daughter — which live in the Ol Pejeta Conservancy in Kenya. The 2 females room incapable that a successful pregnancy: Najin is too old and also issues through her legs do it impossible for her to support the load of a mounting male; Fatu has a uterine condition that will most likely keep her from breeding, according to experts.

With natural reproduction attempts nixed for the northern white rhinos, conservationists have turned to in vitro fertilization. However, IVF in this rhinoceroses comes v its own set of challenges, including figuring out how to gain immature egg to construct outside that the female"s body and likewise how to inject sperm right into these eggs.

As because that the Sumatran rhinos, they are hanging on by a thread together well. In addition to the Javan rhino, Sumatran rhinos are barely hanging on in the wild. They walk extinct in Vietnam in 2010 andin Malaysia in 2015, follow to the international Rhino Foundation. Small populations that the subspecies survive in three nationwide parks inSumatra. And also in in march 2016, conservationists recorded a live Sumatran rhinoceros in the Indonesian part of the island the Borneo because that the first time. Though a camera-trap photo snapped in 2013 revealed Sumatran rhinos did make it through in this region called Kalimantan, the catch of the female significant the an initial time in 40 years the humans had physically contacted a live Sumatran rhino there.


Rhino horns

Rhino horns space made the keratin, which is additionally the an essential component of human hair and also fingernails. However the horns room not just thick clumps that hair. CT scans have shown dense mineral shop of calcium and melanin in the main point of the horn. The calcium provides the horn stronger, and the melanin protects that from the sun"s UV rays, follow to researchers at Ohio University.

The horns are comparable to steed hooves, tortoise beaks and also cockatoo bills, said Tobin Hieronymus, one OU doctoral student. Rhino horns often tend to curve backward, towards the head, because the keratin in former grows quicker than the keratin in the back, Hieronymus called Live Science. The external of the horn is quite soft and can be worn down or sharpened after years of use, according to the san Diego Zoo. If a horn division off, it have the right to gradually prosper back.

Black rhinos, white rhinos and also Sumatran rhinos have two horns. Javan rhinos and greater one-horned rhinos have actually one. Top top the black color rhino, the prior horn can thrive to 20 to 51 inch (51 to 130 centimeters), if the behind horn can thrive to about 20 inches, according to the international Rhino Foundation. A white rhino"s horns are slightly smaller, and also a Sumatran rhinos horns are about 10 come 31 inch (25 to 79 cm) for the front and less 보다 3 inch (7 cm) because that the rear. The greater one-horned rhino"s horn is 8 come 24 inch (20 come 61 cm), and also Javan rhinos have actually a horn the is about 10 inch (25 cm) long.

How large are rhinos?

The biggest rhino types is the white rhino, follow to the mountain Diego Zoo. It grow to 12 come 13 feet (3.7 come 4 meters) long and also up come 6 feet (1.8 m) native hoof to shoulder. That weighs around 5,000 lbs. (2,300 kilograms).

The smallest rhino species is the Sumatran rhino. It grow to 8 to 10 feet (2.5 to 3 m) long and also up to 4.8 feet (1.5 m) indigenous hoof come shoulder. The Sumatran rhino weighs approximately 1,765 lbs. (800 kg).

Habitat

White rhinos and also black rhinos live in the grasslands and floodplains that eastern and southern Africa. Greater one-horned rhinos can be uncovered in the swamps and also rain woodlands of north India and also southern Nepal. Sumatran and Javan rhinos are found only in small areas that Malaysian and Indonesian swamps and rain forests.

Rhinos invest their days and nights grazing and also only sleep during the hottest components of the day. Throughout the rarely times when they aren"t eating, they deserve to be found enjoying a cooling dirt soak. This soaks also help to defend the animals from bugs, and the mud is a natural sunblock, according to national Geographic.

Though rhinos are often solitary, they carry out occasionally form groups. Called crashes, these teams are consisted of of a female and also her offspring. A leading male rules over an area of land. The male will allow some sub-dominate males to live ~ above his territory. Females roam freely about several various territories.

Diet

Rhinoceroses space herbivores, which method they eat only vegetation. The kind of vegetation castle eat different by species. This is since their snouts are different shapes to accommodate different types of food, follow to nationwide Geographic. Because that example, the black color rhino eats trees or bushes due to the fact that its lengthy lips enable it to choose leaves and fruit from increase high. The white rhino has a flat-shaped snout that lets it get closer to the ground because that eating grass.

Offspring

Every two and also a half to 5 years, a female rhino will certainly reproduce. Female rhinos carry their young for a gestation duration of 15 to 16 months. They commonly only have one infant at a time, despite they do sometimes have twins. At birth, baby rhinos, i m sorry are dubbed calves, space still fairly big, at 88 to 140 lbs. (40 come 64 kg), according to the san Diego Zoo.

At about 3 year old, the calf will collection out on its own. A rhino can live up to 45 years.

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Classification/taxonomy

According to the combined Taxonomic info System (ITIS), the taxonomy the rhinos is:

Kingdom: Animalia Subkingdom: Bilateria Infrakingdom: Deuterostomia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Infraphylum: Gnathostomata Superclass: Tetrapoda Class: Mammalia Subclass: Theria Infraclass: Eutheria Order: Perissodactyla Family: Rhinocerotidae Genera & species:

White rhinos: Ceratotherium simum (southern white rhinoceros), Ceratotherium cottoni (northern white rhinoceros). IUCN lists these as subspecies the Ceratotherium simum.Sumatran rhinos: Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (also dubbed hairy rhino, asian two-horned rhino). Subspecies: Dicerorhinus sumatrensis harrisoni, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis sumatransisBlack rhinos: Diceros bicornis (black rhino).Subspecies: Diceros bicornis bicornis, Diceros bicornis brucii, Diceros bicornis chobiensis, Diceros bicornis ladoensis, Diceros bicornis longipes, Diceros bicornis michaeli, Diceros bicornis minor, Diceros bicornis occidentalisJavan rhinos: Rhinoceros unicornisGreater one-horned rhinos: Rhinoceros sondaicus (also referred to as Indian rhino). Subspecies: Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus, Rhinoceros sondaicus inermis, Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus

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