The internal of the earth is hot. Geothermal Gradient: the warm within the earth steadily boosts with depth; theheat is from radioactive decay and also remnant warmth of the Earth"s formation.

Magma is molten rock material. As magma cools the elements within the magma combine and also crystalize into minerals that kind an igneous rock.

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Magmacools either listed below the surface or in ~ the surface (magma that reaches the surface is referred to as lava).

As magma cools igneous rock is formed. There room two varieties of igneous rock:

1) Extrusive: magma will the surface of the Earth before cooling and also the lava cools rapidly.

2) Intrusive: magma cools under the Earth"s surface. The magma cools really slowly.

As magma cools minerals are developed into an interlocking plan prbenidormclubdeportivo.orgcing an igneous rock.


As magma cools that undergoes reaction that kind minerals. The price of cooling is really important. If the magma cools progressively then the reactions proceed for a longer duration of time and the result mineral crystals (grains) end up being large. If the magma cools quickly then the reaction are lot quicker and the mineral crystals (grains) space smaller.

Igneous rocks will have actually a distinctive figure (this is described as texture) based on the price of cooling (fast or slow).

Textural terms because that igneous rocks:

1. Phaneritic (coarse grained): rocks space composed the mineral grains large enough to it is in seen v the unaided eye. Indicitive of slow cooling, typically deep in ~ the Earth.


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Aphanitic (fine grained): rocks room composed the mineral grains too small to be checked out by the unaided eye. Indicitive of much faster cooling, typically at or near the Earth"s surface.

3. Glassy: magma cooled so easily that crystal formation can not occur. Indicative of almost instant cooling in ~ the Earth"s surface.

4. Porphorytic: big mineral cyrstals surrounding by a well grained procession (background). This texture forms when sluggish cooling starts to kind large mineral crystals. Prior to the magma is totally cooled the magma (and its big mineral grains) move closer to the surface and also finishes cooling in ~ a much more rapid pace.

Igneous rocks have a variety of chemical composition.

1. Sialic (granitic) or felsic: rocks have highest silica, save on computer feldspar and also ferromagnesium minerals. Rocks room light in color.

2. Intermediate (andesitic): rocks have less silica, save feldspar and ferromagnesium minerals. Rocks are medium gray in color.

3. Mafic (basaltic): rocks have greater amounts that ferromagnesium minerals and less silica and feldspar. Rocks room dark in color, black or dark gray.

4. Ultramafic: greatest amount of ferromagnesium minerals and least amount of silica. Rocks space usually a dark green to green-black.

Classification that Igneous Rocks

Igneous rocks room classified by both texture and composition. Friend will find out to identify typical igneous rocks in lab.

intrusive (phaneritic)granitedioritegabbro
extrusive (aphanitic)rhyoliteandesitebasalt