Quick facts

Ruminant stomachs have four compartments: the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum and also the abomasum.

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Rumen microbes ferment feed and also produce volatile fatty acids, i beg your pardon is the cow’s main power source. Rumen microbes additionally produce B vitamins, vitamin K and amino acids.

In calves, the esophageal grooves enables milk to bypass the rumen and directly go into the abomasum. Rumen advance occurs following a adjust in diet and also microbial growth.


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The cow"s digestive tract consists of the following.

MouthEsophagusA four-compartment stomach, i m sorry includesThe rumen (paunch)The illusion (“honeycomb”)The omasum (“manyplies”)The abomasum (“true stomach”)Small intestineLarge intestine

The rumen

The rumen (on the left next of the animal) is the biggest stomach compartment and also consists of several sacs. It have the right to hold 25 gallons or an ext of material depending upon the size of the cow. Due to the fact that of that size, the rumen acts together a warehouse or holding vat for feed.

Aside indigenous storage, the rumen is additionally a fermentation vat. The rumen’s atmosphere favors the expansion of microbes. This microbes digest or ferment feed within the rumen and also make volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The rumen absorbs many of the VFAs from fermentation.

A good blood supply to the rumen walls enhances absorption the VFAs and also other cradle products. Tiny projections (papillae) line the rumen, which rises the rumen’s surface ar area and the amount it deserve to absorb.

The reticulum 

The illusion is a pouch-like structure in the front area the the body, close come the heart. The organization in the reticulum form a network comparable to a honeycomb. A small tissue fold lies in between the reticulum and also rumen, but the 2 aren’t different compartments. Together they’re called the rumino-reticulum.

Heavy or thick feed and also metal objects eaten by the cow drop right into this compartment. Nails and other spicy objects might work into the tissue and also cause “hardware disease.” You deserve to use magnets to prevent condition or correct the trouble through surgery. Leaving it untreated may lead to infection and also possibly death.

The omasum

The omasum is a globe-shaped framework containing pipeline of tissue (like pages in a book). The absorbs water and also other building material from digestive contents. Feed product (ingesta) between the leaves will certainly be drier than ingesta discovered in the various other compartments.

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The abomasum

The abomasum is the just compartment lined through glands. These glands relax hydrochloric acid and also digestive enzymes, necessary to breakdown feeds. The abomasum is comparable to a nonruminant stomach.