Guide E-216 Nancy C. Flores College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, new Mexico State University

Author: expansion Food technology Specialist, department of expansion Home Economics, new Mexico State University.

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Introduction

>Cheesemaking approaches vary relying on the intended last use or intake of the cheese. Cheese deserve to have widely varying characteristics.

Italian mozzarella-type cheese, supplied in pasta dishes, have to have great melting quality and also mild flavor. Hard cheese such as Romano and also Parmesan should be dried with distinct flavor. Mexico cheese, regularly used in fried foods, should be stable at high temperatures. The variety among cheese has emerged from differences in milk quality, diversity among native microflora (microorganisms naturally developing in a given region) and also differences in dealing with during processing. In north America cheese is generally made indigenous the milk of cows (Bos taurus) or goats (Capra aegagrus). In India cheese is frequently made of milk from water buffalo (Bubalus arnee). Yak (Bos grunniens) cheese is make in the internal of Asia.

Cow"s milk is composed of 88% water with 3.7% fat, 3.4% protein, 4.8% street (lactose), and also 0.7% minerals and also vitamins (USDA, 2005). The procedure of making cheese requires forming a curd indigenous milk solids such together fats, protein and also minerals that room separated and also concentrated (Hill, 2006). The discharged liquid, whey, consists of most that the lactose, water, straightforward proteins, minerals and also vitamins (Hill, 2006). Around 10 pounds (1.25 gallons) that milk are required to do one pound of cheese.

Making cheese is a dynamic process, affected by time, temperature and also the bacterial culture (lactic acid bacteria) and also coagulating enzyme (rennet) the are offered to concentrate and separate the casein (milk protein) and fat from the whey. Exceptions to this encompass cheeses such as Queso Fresco or Queso Blanco (traditionally consumed in Latin American countries) and also Paneer (traditionally consumed in India), which are made without bacterial cultures or rennet. This cheeses are made by curdling warm milk by adding an acid such together vinegar or fruit juice. This kind of fresh cheese is simple to make and also has greater yield since all the whey proteins normally lost are included in the cheese.

The enzyme rennet reasons casein to type chains and to build a mesh-like network or gel, trapping water and also fat. This semisolid gelatin is the curd. Once the gelatin is certain enough, it is cut into small pieces and, after ~ cooking, the whey is removed. The whey might be partially drained from the curd and the curd washed with water to boost its humidity content. The temperature throughout cooking and also handling of the curd affects the texture of the curd and the form of final product. When the curd has actually reached the desired moisture and also acidity, salt deserve to be added. Salting may be achieved through brine, similar to Gouda; surface ar salt, as with Feta; or dried salt, as with Cheddar. After salting, the curd might be partly drained and also again washed v water to boost the moisture content. As soon as the curds have reached the preferred moisture and acidity (pH), the whey is separated native the curd.

The cheese curd created is a an outcome of bacterial action on lactose convert to lactic acid. The acid acts together a preservative, clears water native the cheese curd, and develops cheese structure (Hill, 2006). Initially the enzyme from aboriginal microflora develop the odor components, which readjust during aging.

Commercial cultures have been occurred to produce a certain cheese type. Yogurt and also buttermilk contain live bacteria that deserve to be supplied as a society to do cheese.

Once the whey is removed, the curd is permitted to pole together, forming a mat. The mat is moved to a hoop or mold lined v cheesecloth, which contributes come the final shape. The mold can be pressed to type a dense cheese (Cheddar) or can be left to resolve under its own weight to have actually an open up texture (Feta).

Soft cheese have the right to be make at home without devoted equipment. Due to the fact that soft cheese contains over 45% water, it is highly perishable and also has a refrigerated life the only five to seven days.

Food security Concerns

There are four major pathogens associated with fresh cheese. These can cause foodborne illness. Lock are: Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. This pathogenic bacteria are managed by an excellent sanitation that equipment and also food contact surfbenidormclubdeportivo.org, ideal cooking, cooling and also handling that cheese curds throughout processing, and proper hand washing.

Sanitation

to wash hands* and all equipment with soapy laundry detergent before and also after use. rinse all devices with clean safe and clean water, removing every soapy residue. cook all cheese-making equipment in between uses. Soak all cheese-making equipment in a bleach-water systems for 2 minutes, before and also after use. Maintain energetic chlorine in bleach water (see below). for best-quality cheese, use new cheesecloth each time you do cheese. (Sterilize cheesecloth by an initial washing, then boiling or soaking 2 minutes in bleach-water.) Squeaky clean is clean. If you deserve to feel a residue top top the equipment, the is no clean.

* Wash hands whenever hands touch dirty or soiled surfbenidormclubdeportivo.org, ~ a sneeze or cough, ~ bathroom use, after ~ eating, or after managing raw milk. Hands have to be dried fully with a clean disposable record towel.

Bleach-water

add one tablespoon the standard family bleach come one gallon that water. Make a new bleach-water solution each time you do cheese. Test chlorine task of bleach-water ~ above a continuous basis making use of litmus test record (available in ~ hardware stores). Remake bleach-water if it becomes cloudy through food particles. Bleach-water recipe have the right to be double if necessary.

Pasteurization of raw Milk

The pasteurization of life milk is a vulnerable procedure dependant top top temperature and also time. The is recommended that the life milk it is in pasteurized by heater at 60–62.5°C (140–145°F) for 30 minutes. This warmth treatment will ruin pathogenic bacteria the could cause foodborne illness. After pasteurization the milk is cooled come 32–37°C (89.6–98.6°F). Climate the cheese making process may begin.

use a food preparation thermometer in the milk to measure temperature. Temperature regulate is an extremely important. Perform not warmth milk over 145°F. That may readjust the texture and also flavor that the cheese. Temperature under 140°F will certainly not kill harmful bacteria.

Note: Pasteurized milk accessible at the grocery store store has actually been warmth processed and also homogenized for a ready-to-drink milk product. This affect milk protein and also fat texture. Back homogenized milk can be used, result cheese will have actually a various texture than the timeless cheese.

Selecting Milk and Cultured Products

The high quality of the cheese depends highly on the high quality of the life milk and also cultures used to do the cheese. Top quality is impacted by freshness, or age and also microbial standing of the life milk, and by the wellness of the dairy product cow. Cultures, as already mentioned, can be derived directly indigenous a caterer or indirectly from yogurt or buttermilk. Regardless of the resource of milk and also cultures, care must be taken to take care of the cultures properly to avoid microbial air pollution that may influence the plot of the culturing agent.

The texture and also flavor of cheese are established initially through the culturing agents, by the fat content of the milk product used, and also by the quantity of humidity left in the product. The milk products used in cheese-making contribute both fat and also moisture. Therefore, once the goal is to make a low-fat cheese, it is vital to think about that the flavor, texture and moisture content of a cheese made from low-fat milk will be much different than those the a cheese product through a higher fat content. Table 1 offers information on the fat contents of various milk commodities that might be offered in do cheese.

Table 1. Fat content of typical milk assets (USDA Nutrient Database, 2005)

Dairy Product Fat g/cup (g/240 g)
Whole milk 8
2% milk 5
1% milk 2.5
Skim milk 0.5
Condensed milk 27
Buttermilk 2.2
Half "n" fifty percent 28
Heavy cream 88
Light cream 40
Yogurt, plain, nonfat 0.4
Yogurt, plain, lowfat 3.5
Yogurt, plain, whole 7.4

Equipment because that Making Soft Cheese

Thermometer v a temperature range of 40 to 165°F. Large dual boiler with around a 5-quart capacity for 1 gallon that milk. (Two large cooking pots of different sizes have the right to be substituted because that a double boiler.) Spatula long sufficient to reach the bottom the the double boiler. Long-handled spoon. Long-bladed knife. Digital timer or easy-to-read clock. Measure up cups, teaspoons. Cheesecloth or muslin, tea towel. Quart strainer to support draining cloth. Forms or molds for shaping the cheese. A homemade press have the right to be made from pan-shaped colander and also a salad bowl or a "follower." (Figure 1) A 1-pound coffee have the right to (smooth sided) can also be used. Punch holes in the bottom that the deserve to from the inside out so a towel liner will not capture on the steel edges. Make a follower the end of the can lid in the same way. A push or maker to put pressure on the cheese. Cans or glass jars the fit snugly in the coffee deserve to may be used for this purpose. Brining container do of glass or heavy plastic. Plastic bucket (2-gallon capacity) for whey discharge.

*

Figure 1. Coffee have the right to cheese press. (Taken native C. McDaniel and also P. Kendall, 2004)

Recipes

No-rennet Queso Blanco (Latin American White Cheese)

Recipe adapted from Hill, A.R. (2006)

Heat-acid or no-rennet Queso Blanco is a white, semi-hard cheese made without culture or rennet. That is eaten fresh and may be flavored with peppers, herbs and spices. That is considered a "frying cheese" meaning it does not melt and also may be deep fried or grilled. Queso Blanco can also be made by renneting whole milk with small or no bacterial culture.

Ingredients:

4.6 fl. Oz. (137 ml) vinegar (5% acetic acid) 9.2 fl oz. (274 ml) distilled water 1.0 gallon (3.76 L; 8 lb; 3.63 kg) heat-treated or pasteurized milk 1 teaspoon (4.6 g) salt spices to taste

Procedure:

warm milk to 176°F (80°C) for 20 minutes. add vinegar (5% acetic acid) come water and then include slowly come the warm milk till the whey is semi-clear and the curd particles start to mat together and become contempt stretchy. You should have the ability to stretch a piece of curd about 0.39 inches (1 cm) before it breaks. It may not be important to add all the the vinegar. different the curd by filtering through a towel bag until totally free whey is removed. work in salt and spices come taste. press the curd (high press is no required). package curd in boilable bags (vacuum package if possible) and also place in boiling water for 5 minute to sterilize the surface and prevent mould growth. Queso Blanco may keep for numerous weeks if correctly packed and stored in a refrigerator, but should be eaten in together fresh a state as possible.

Ricotta Cheese

Recipe adapted from Hill, A.R. (2006)

Ricotta cheese is additionally made through heat-acid precipitation of protein from blends the milk and also whey. It is provided in lasagna or consumed as a next dish along with the main course.

Ingredients:

1 quart (940 ml) vinegar (5% acetic acid) 25 gallons ( 94 L; 200 lb; 90.72 kg) heat-treated or pasteurized whey 2.5 gallons (9.4 L; 20 lb; 9.07 kg) pasteurized totality milk

Procedure:

add whole milk to new whey, then heat to 185°F (85°C). Heating must begin automatically after the whey is removed from the curd to prevent more acidification by the lactic acid bacteria. Some tiny curd particles will certainly form. gradually add around 2 teaspoons the vinegar every quart the whey v gentle agitation. You will see more curd corpuscle forming and also the whey will come to be less "milky." Pour into a cloth to separate the curds. After ~ the curd is dripped dry it is ready to eat.

Note: More vinegar might be added depending on the amount of milk used. Continue including vinegar until the whey is fairly clear. By adding the vinegar progressively over a time duration of around 5 minutes you will obtain far better quality curd and it will certainly be easier to understand when to stop.

Cheese Made with Rennet

Rennet is obtainable as a tablet computer or liquid. One teaspoon fluid rennet is tantamount to one tablet. Either type must be fully dissolved in cold insanity water. Difficult water have to be neutralized by adding 1/4 cup milk to water before the addition of rennet.

SAFE Queso Fresco (Fresh Cheese)

Recipe adapted from "Abuela project," Washington State university (2002).

This recipe to be designed to replace Queso Fresco made v raw milk after an increase in Salmonella outbreaks in Yakima County, Washington. Queso Fresco has a grainy, soft crumbly texture and also a mild, fresh flavor. This cheese have the right to be consumed in crumbly pieces in salads however holds up fine to heating, both baking and also broiling.

Ingredients:

One tablet computer rennet or 1 tsp fluid rennet dissolved in 1/2 cup insanity water One quart (0.95 L; 2.15 lb; 911 g) cultured buttermilk for society Two quarts (1.89 L; 4.3 lb; 1.9 kg) heat-treated or pasteurized milk seven teaspoons (35 ml) white vinegar (5% acidity) 2 teaspoons (9.3 g) salt

Procedure:

Mix one quart cultured buttermilk v two quarts heat-treated or pasteurized milk. add 7 teaspoons white vinegar to the milk mixture. Mix well. warmth milk to 90°F (32.22°C). Eliminate pan native the heat. include rennet mixture and also mix for around 2 minutes. Let was standing for 30–40 minutes until curd is firm. cut curd into 1-inch cubes and also let stand for about 5 minutes. warmth curds and whey come 115°F (46.11°C) without stirring. Eliminate pan native heat, climate let was standing for 5 minutes. pour mix with cheesecloth and allow whey to drain for 5 minutes. type curd into a ball and twist the cheesecloth tenderness to squeeze the end the whey. rest up curds right into a key and include 2 teaspoons of salt. Mix in salt and also let was standing for 5 minutes, then squeeze again as before. location curd in mold to type the cheese overnight in the refrigerator. remove cheese from mold and also package in one air-tight container. store cheese refrigerated during storage.

Neufchatel

Recipe adapted from C. McDaniel and P. Kendall (2004)

Neufchatel (New-sha-TEL) is a milky-white cheese v a soft, smooth texture and is low in fat if made with reduced-fat or fat-free milk.

Ingredients:

1 gallon (3.79 L; 8.6 lb; 3.9 kg) pasteurized milk (any level the fat) One tablet rennet or 1 tsp liquid rennet dissolved in 1/2 cup insanity water1/2 cup (4 fl oz; 114 g) fresh cultured unsalted buttermilk or 1/4 cup (2 fl oz; 57 g) fresh level yogurt because that culture3 teaspoons (14 g) salt (optional)

Procedure:

placed 1 gallon that milk into the upper component of a dual boiler. Include enough water in the bottom of dual boiler to prevent milk from scorching. Stir in buttermilk or yogurt and warm gradually to 92 come 94°F (33.33 to 34.4°C). Preserve this temperature range through procedures 2 and also 3. add rennet mixture and stir into milk because that 2 come 3 minutes. Enable milk to collection undisturbed for around 30 minute or till a firm gel forms. To test because that curd formation, cut a cleft in the curd through a metal spatula, on slide under the curd and also lift slightly. If the reduced in the curd division clean, that is prepared for action 3. reduced the curd into roughly 1-inch cubes. Line gently and also continuously because that 20 come 30 minute to aid firm curds. Store the temperature variety 90 to 94°F (32.22 come 34.4°C). to water off whey (yellow liquid). Enable the curds to settle, and also dip out the staying whey. add 1 tespoon salt, mix gently. Wait 5 minutes and also mix in the second teaspoon salt. Wait 5 much more minutes and also mix in the critical teaspoon salt. divide the curds into two batches and also proceed as complies with for every batch. Line two coffee cans through clean cheesecloth or muslin. Place fifty percent of the cheese curd inside each lined can. Fold the towel over the optimal and include the follower. apply pressure by pressing with a weight, such together a number 303 deserve to of food, till the surface is smooth (2 to 4 hours). Perform this in the sink to allow the whey to drainpipe out of the cans. eliminate the created cheese and the cloth. Pave the cheese strict in plastic or in waxed document and save in refrigerator. That will keep for seven to ten job under refrigeration. It can be frozen for four to six months. However, freeze lowers the quality of the cheese.

Cream Cheese

Recipe adapted from C. McDaniel and also P. Kendal (2004)

Cream cheese has actually a mild, smooth texture and a slight citrus flavor well balanced with buttery cream. Cream cheese have the right to be blended with fruit and also seasonings, used as a dive or spread, or provided in desserts such together cheesecake.

Ingredients:

3 1/2 quarts (3.3 L; 6.45 lb; 2.92 kg) pasteurized totality milk 1 pint (473.2 ml) pasteurized whipping cream 3/4 to 1 cup (6-8 fl oz; 177 ml; 242 g) new buttermilk for culture1 1/2 teaspoons (7.12 g) salt (optional) One tablet rennet or 1 tsp fluid rennet liquified in 1/2 cup madness water

Procedure:

ar milk, cream and starter in dual boiler. Heat to 85°F (29.4°C). include rennet mixture, then stir gently because that 4 minutes. sheathe the milk and also let was standing for 1 hour or till the whey consist of the curd and also breaks clean native the side of the pan. Preserve a temperature the 85°F (29.4°C). cut curd into 1-inch cubes and permit to was standing undisturbed for 5 minutes. to water mixture into a muslin bag or cheesecloth-lined colander. Drainpipe overnight in the refrigerator. v a wood spoon, work in 1 1/2 teaspoons salt. Package and also store cream cheese in the refrigerator.

Pizza Cheese

Recipe adjusted from C. McDaniel and P. Kendall (2004)

Also well-known as mozzarella, this fresh cheese is an extremely mild in flavor and also adds structure to cook dishes. Fresh cheese have the right to be save on computer in water yet must be eaten within 2 days.

Ingredients:

1 gallon (3.79 L; 8.63 lb; 3.91 kg) 2% milk OR 2 quarts (1.9 L; 4.3lb; 1.95 kg) entirety milk to add 2 quarts skim milk 1/4 cup (2 fl oz; 57 g) fresh, plain yogurt One tablet rennet or 1 tsp fluid rennet liquified in 1/2 cup insanity waterBrine: use 2 pounds (907 g) that salt per gallon (3.78 l) of water

Procedure:

heat milk to 90°F (32.22°C) and add yogurt. Stir gradually for 15 minutes while preserving this constant temperature. include rennet mixture and stir for 3 to 5 minutes. Cover, preserving temperature at 90°F (32.22°C). Enable to stand till coagulated, around 30 minutes. reduced curd right into 1/2-inch (1.27cm) cubes. Permit to stand for 15 minutes v occasional stirring. gradually increase temperature come 118°F (47.77°C) over a duration of 45 minutes. Host this temperature for an additional 15 minutes. (Total time because that this step is 1 hour.) enable curd to work out under whey. Eliminate whey and also transfer the mat of curd to a level pan that can be retained warm. Carry out not reduced mat, yet turn it over every 15 minutes for a 2-hour period. Mat should be tight once finished. cut the mat right into long strips 1 to 2 inches (2.5–5 cm) wide. Placed curd in warm water (180°F; 82°C). Utilizing wooden spoons, tumble and also stretch that under water till it i do not care elastic, about 15 minutes. remove curd from warm water and also shape it by hand into a round or a loaf. Ar cheese in cold water (40°F; 4.4°C) for roughly 1 hour. eliminate cheese native cold water and also put it into a saturated salt solution. To prepare salt brine, keep the brine cold (40 to 50°F; 4.4 to 9.9°C) if the cheese is in it. Overfill salt will stay on the bottom, i beg your pardon is normal. Since a brine solution is corrosive, ar in a heavy plastic, glass or ceramic container. Cover any exposed areas of cheese through dry salt. Leave cheese in the brine because that 24 hours. remove cheese indigenous brine and also let it dried for numerous hours. Pave in plastic wrap and refrigerate. This cheese may be used instantly or save on computer under refrigeration because that one week.

Resources obtainable Online

Dairy connection Incorporated http://www.dairyconnection.com/ This site sells products useful for making and also customizing cheese: coloring, cheese wax, cheese ladles, cheese cloths, draining mats, and thermometers.

Danlac.com http://www.danlac.com/ right here you can discover rennet and other enzymes, equipment, starter cultures and also information top top cultures.

Glengarry Cheesemaking and also Dairy Supply http://glengarrycheesemaking.on.ca/ below you can discover cheese presses, molds, rennet, ripening racks, drying racks, cheese vats, pasteurizers (both commercial and non-commercial), curd cutters, coatings, waxes, kits, videos, etc.

Junket http://www.junketdesserts.com/ This site gives information on rennet products and recipes for soft cheese and also custard desserts.

Moorlands Cheesemakers http://www.cheesemaking.co.uk/ below you can buy cheese making kits of all sorts, and also molds, rennet etc., although this website is based in the unified Kingdom, shipments deserve to be accepted in the U.S..

New England Cheesemaking it is provided Company http://www.cheesemaking.com/ This website is because that non-commercial cheese makers. They offer many complete kits for cheese making.

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References

Hill, A.R. (2006). Cheese. University of Guelph. Obtainable at: http://www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/cheese2.html

McDaniel, C. And also Kendall, P. (2004). Making Soft Cheeses. Colorado State college Extension file no. 9.337. Accessible at: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/foodnut/09337.html

U.S. Room of Agriculture, agricultural Research Service. (2005) USDA national Nutrient Database for traditional Reference, relax 18. Nutrient Data Laboratory home Page. Easily accessible at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl

Washington State university (2002). Fresh cheese make safely. Pacific Northwest extension publication. Obtainable at: http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/pnw0539/pnw0539.pdf

To find more resources for your business, home, or family, visit the college of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental scientific researches on the World broad Web at benidormclubdeportivo.org.

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