AP Biology help » Cellular biological » Cell functions » Cellular division » understanding Meiosis
Explanation:

Gametes space haploid cells that developed via meiosis. Throughout meiosis, diploid cells divide right into four nonidentical haploid daughter cells. Mitosis to produce two identical diploid somatic cell from one parent cell.


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Explanation:

Meiosis results in cells through 23 chromosomes (22 autosomes and also 1 sex chromosome). Note that this cells are haploid because n=23, and also nonidentical, because of crossing over during prophase I.

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Explanation:

Gametes space made via meiosis i beg your pardon produces cells through n=23 instead of diploid cells. If gametes were developed instead by mitosis each gamete would be diploid no haploid. Throughout fertilization of diploid gametes, the zygote would end up being 4n=92. Through each new generation the variety of chromosomes would double.


Explanation:

In biology, the hatchet “ploidy” refers to the variety of chromosome sets every cell. Haploid cell have half of the number of chromosomes as parent cells, meaning that castle only lug a solitary copy of every gene. Haploid cells room formed throughout meiosis and, in humans, create gametes, i beg your pardon mature right into sperm and egg cells.


Explanation:

Diploid cells contain two copies of every chromosome, as such containing double as numerous (2n) chromosomes together a haploid cabinet (n), i m sorry contain only one copy of each chromosome. In humans, diploid somatic cell contain 46 chromosomes, or 23 bag of chromosomes.


Explanation:

Trisomy 21, or down syndrome results once a human being individual inherits three copies of chromosome 21, rather of the typical two copies (one maternal and one paternal). This is resulted in by nondisjunction, or the improper distinction of chromosomes throughout cell division. In the situation of trisomy 21, nondisjunction leads to a fail of chromosome 21 segregation throughout meiosis (most that the time during anaphase I). This results in one of two people an egg or sperm delivering two duplicates of chromosome 21 instead of one. The zygote created by fertilization creates into an individual that has three duplicates of chromosome 21. Trisomy 21 manifests in physical development delays, pundit disabilities, and also distinctive face features. 


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Example concern #37 : expertise Meiosis


Which molecular system is not a possible cause of nondisjunction?


Possible Answers:

Maternal gametes have actually a higher chance the exhibiting nondisjunction


Error in cytoplasmic partitioning


Older age of one individual leader to weaker cohesin complexes at the centromere


Failure to happen the spindle assembly checkpoint


Correct answer:

Error in cytoplasmic partitioning


Explanation:

Nondisjunction is the improper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis or mitosis. The molecular causes behind nondisjunction space (1) raised rate of nondisjunction in woman cells, (2) fail to properly pass the spindle assembly checkpoint, and also (3) weakening of the cohesion complicated at the centromere because of age.


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Example question #38 : understanding Meiosis


Which that the adhering to organisms perform not perform meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Mammals


Flowering plants


Bacteria


Mosses


Correct answer:

Bacteria


Explanation:

Meiosis is a process that to produce gametes in sex-related reproduction. Therefore, organisms that undergo sexual reproduction or feature sexual life stages undergo meiosis. Mammals produce haploid sperm and also eggs v meiosis, which fuse to form a diploid zygote. In mosses, reproduction is called the alternation that generations, meaning that generations alternate between haploid and also diploid forms. In this system, meiosis produces haploid spores during the sporophyte generation, i m sorry germinate to type gametophyte precursors. In flower plants, cells in male and female sexual organs undergo meiosis to form precursor sex cells, called spores. Prokaryotes, including bacteria, carry out asexual reproduction that does not include the process of meiosis. Varieties of asexual reproduction encompass fission, budding, and fragmentation. In the instance of bacteria, cell reproduce through binary fission, or cellular department without mitotic spindles.


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Example inquiry #39 : expertise Meiosis


What enzyme aids in chromosomal cross over during prophase i of meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Recombinase


DNA polymerase


Protein kinase


DNA ligase


Correct answer:

Recombinase


Explanation:

During crossing over in prophase ns of meiosis, there is a physical exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. This exchange occurs at the sites of dual stranded breaks, wherein recombinase enzyme facilitate the invasion of the various other chromatid. The original strand and also invading strand anneal following this invasion. As soon as this happens in between two chromosomes, the strands kind a tetrahedral plan called a Holliday junction. Various other recombinase enzymes relocate the junction down the strands, furthering recombination.


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Example inquiry #40 : understanding Meiosis


What is the term because that the structural setup of chromatids undergoing cross over during meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Holliday junction


Kinetochore


Telomere


Equatorial plane


Correct answer:

Holliday junction


Explanation:

During prophase i of meiosis, homologous chromosomes exchange hereditary material in a process called crossing over. Double stranded breaks and also recombinase enzymes facilitate chromatid invasion and also annealing. The tetrahedral structure created through strand invasion between two chromosomes is called the Holliday junction.


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