The carbon atom is unique amongst elements in its tendency to kind extensive networks of covalent binding not just with other aspects but also with itself. Since of its place midway in the second horizontal row of the periodic table, carbon is neither an electropositive nor an electronegative element; it because of this is an ext likely to share electrons 보다 to obtain or shed them. Moreover, of all the elements in the 2nd row, carbon has the maximum number of outer shell electrons (four) qualified of developing covalent bonds. (Other elements, such as phosphorus

and also cobalt , space able to type five and also six covalent bonds, respectively, with various other elements, yet they lack carbon’s ability to link indefinitely with itself.) When totally bonded to other atoms, the four bonds the the carbon atom are directed to the corners that a tetrahedron and also make angle of about 109.5° through each other (see chemical bonding: Bonds in between atoms). The an outcome is that no only can carbon atoms incorporate with one an additional indefinitely to provide compounds of incredibly high molecule weight, but the molecules formed can exist in one infinite selection of three-dimensional structures. The possibilities for diversity are enhanced by the visibility of atoms other than carbon in necessary compounds, specifically hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), halogens (fluorine , chlorine , bromine
, and also iodine ), and also sulfur (S). That is the substantial potential because that variation in chemical properties that has actually made necessary compounds important to life on Earth.

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The structures of organic compounds typically are stood for by streamlined structural formulas, which display not just the kinds and numbers of atoms present in the molecule but likewise the way in i m sorry the atoms are attached by the covalent bonds—information the is not provided by simple molecular formulas, which specify only the number and kind of atoms had in a molecule. (With most inorganic compounds, the usage of structural formulas is not necessary, due to the fact that only a few atoms are involved and also only a single arrangement the the atoms is possible.) In the structural recipe of essential compounds, short lines are provided to represent the covalent bonds. Atom of the individual facets are stood for by their chemical symbols, together in molecule formulas.

Structural formulas differ widely in the quantity of three-dimensional details they convey, and also the kind of structure formula provided for any kind of one molecule relies on the nature that the information the formula is meant to display. The various levels of sophistication deserve to be portrayed by considering few of the least complicated organic compounds, the hydrocarbons. The gas ethane, because that example, has the molecule formula C2H6. The easiest structural formula, drawn either in a condensed or in an increased version, reveals the ethane consists of 2 carbon atoms bonded to one another, every carbon atom bearing three hydrogen atoms. Such a two-dimensional representation effectively shows the bonding plan in ethane, yet it does no convey any type of information around its three-dimensional architecture. A much more sophisticated structural formula can be drawn to far better represent the three-dimensional framework of the molecule. Such a structure formula effectively shows the tetrahedral orientation of the four atoms (one carbon and also three hydrogens) external inspection to each carbon, and the particular architecture of the molecule.

Larger organic molecules are created by the enhancement of much more carbon atoms. Butane, because that example, is a gas hydrocarbon through the molecule formula C4H10, and also it exists together a chain of four carbon atoms v 10 fastened hydrogen atoms. As carbon atom are added to a molecular framework, the carbon chain can develop branches or type cyclic structures. A very common ring structure has six carbon atom in a ring, every bonded in a tetrahedral arrangement, together in the hydrocarbon cyclohexane, C6H12. Together ring structures room often really simply represented as consistent polygons in which each apex represents a carbon atom, and the hydrogen atom that finish the bonding demands of the carbon atoms room not shown. The polygon convention for cyclic structures reveals concisely the bonding arrangement of the molecule however does not clearly convey information around the yes, really three-dimensional architecture. It have to be provided that the polygon is only a two-dimensional symbol because that the three-dimensional molecule.

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Under specific bonding conditions, nearby atoms will form multiple bonds with each other. A double bond is formed when two atoms use 2 electron bag to kind two covalent bonds; a triple bond results as soon as two atom share 3 electron pairs to kind three covalent bonds. Multiple bonds have special structural and also electronic attributes that generate amazing chemical properties. The six atoms connected in a double bond (as in ethene, C2H4) lied in a solitary plane, through regions above and below the airplane occupied by the electron of the second covalent bond. Atoms in a triple bond (as in acetylene, or ethyne, C2H2) lied in a straight line, with 4 regions alongside the bond axis lived in by electrons of the second and 3rd covalent bonds.