Gold

element 79 of regular table is Gold v atomic number 79, atomic load 196.96655. Gold, price Au, has actually a Face focused Cubic structure and Gold color. Gold is a shift metal element. Trivial surname of yellow is coinage metals. Recognize everything about Gold Facts, physics Properties, chemical Properties, electronic configuration, Atomic and also Crystal Structure.


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Gold is a chemical element with prize Au (from Latin:aurum) and also atomic number 79. In its purest form, the is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal. Chemically, yellow is a shift metal and a group 11 element.

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Gold Facts

Read vital information and also facts around element Gold

surname Gold
atomic Number 79
atomic Symbol Au
Atomic weight 196.96655
phase Solid
shade Gold
Classification transition metal
group in regular Table 11
Group Name copper family
duration in regular Table 6
Block in regular Table d-block
Electronic Configuration 4f14 5d10 6s1
Melting allude 1064.18 °C
Boiling allude 2856 °C
Electronic covering Structure <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1>
CAS Number CAS7440-57-5

community
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to situate Gold on routine Table

Periodic table is i ordered it by atom number, number of protons in the nucleus which is very same as variety of electrons. The atomic number boosts from left to right. Routine table start at height left ( atomic number 1) and also ends at bottom appropriate (atomic number 118). Because of this you can straight look for atomic number 79 to find Gold on periodic table.

Another means to read routine table and locate an element is through using team number (column) and duration number (row). To situate Gold on periodic table look because that cross ar of group 11 and period 6 in the modern-day periodic table.

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Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare gold with various other elements

Gold History

The element Gold was discovered by Middle east in year 2500 BC in unknown ar . Gold obtained its name from English native (aurum in Latin)

Gold Presence: diversity in Nature and also Around Us

The table below shows the diversity of gold in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by load (1ppb =10^-7 %)
abundance in cosmos 6×10-8%
diversity in sunlight 1×10-7%
diversity in Meteorites 1.7e-07
Abundance in Earth"s tardy 3.1×10-7%
variety in oceans 5×10-9%
diversity in human beings 1e-07

Crystal framework of Gold

The hard state framework of gold is Face focused Cubic.

The crystal structure can be explained in terms of its unit Cell. The unit cells repeats chin in 3 dimensional space to kind the structure.

Unit cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in regards to its lattice parameters, which space the lengths that the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
407.82 407.82 407.82 pm

and the angles between them Lattice angle (alpha, beta and also gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The location of the atoms inside the unit cabinet are explained by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured indigenous a referral lattice point.

The symmetry nature of the decision are defined by the ide of an are groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional an are are explained by the 230 space groups (219 distinctive types, or 230 if chiral duplicates are thought about distinct.

an are Group name Fm_ 3m
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an are Group Number 225
Crystal structure Face centered Cubic

Gold Atomic and also Orbital Properties

Gold atoms have 79 electrons and also the electronic shell framework is <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1> with Atomic ax Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.


atomic Number 79
Number of electrons (with no charge) 79
Number the Protons 79
Mass Number 197
Number that Neutrons 118
Shell framework (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1>
Electron configuration 4f14 5d10 6s1
Valence Electrons 5d10 6s1
Oxidation State -3;-2;-1 1;2;3;5
Atomic ax Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2

Shell structure of yellow - electrons per energy level


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Ground State digital Configuration of yellow - neutral gold atom

The soil state digital configuration that Neutral gold atom is 4f14 5d10 6s1. The portion of yellow configuration the is indistinguishable to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . Because that atoms with plenty of electrons, this notation deserve to become lengthy and so an abbreviation notation is used.This is essential as that is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d10 6s1, electrons in the outermost covering that recognize the chemical properties that the element.

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Unabbreviated digital configuration that neutral gold

Complete ground state electronic configuration because that the yellow atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s1

Atomic framework of Gold

Gold atom radius is 174 pm, if it"s covalent radius is 144 pm.

atom Radius

174 afternoon (1.74 Å)

Atomic Volume 10.2055207254 cm3
Covalent Radius 144 afternoon (1.44 Å)
valve der Waals Radius 166 pm
spirit Cross section 98.7 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Gold

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Gold chemical Properties: gold Ionization Energies and also electron affinity

The electron affinity of gold is 222.8 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 2.54
ElectronAffinity 222.8 kJ/mol

Ionization energy of yellow

Refer come table listed below for Ionization energies of Gold

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 890.1
2 1980

Gold physical Properties

Refer to below table for Gold physical Properties

thickness 19.3 g/cm3
Molar Volume 10.2055207254 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 78 GPa
Shear Modulus 27 GPa
mass Modulus 220 GPa
Poisson proportion 0.44

Hardness of yellow - tests to measure up of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 216 MPa
Brinell Hardness 2450 MPa

Gold electric Properties

yellow is Conductor of electricity. Describe table listed below for the electric properties of gold

electric Conductivity 4.5×107 S/m
Resistivity 2.2×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting allude N/A

Gold Heat and also Conduction Properties

heat Conductivity 320 W/(m K)
Thermal growth 0.0000142 K-1

Gold Magnetic Properties

Magnetic type Diamagnetic
Curie suggest N/A
mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.78×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.51×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -3.44e-05

Optical properties of Gold

Refractive index N/A

Acoustic properties of Gold

speed of Sound 1740 m/s

Gold heat Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table listed below for thermal properties that Gold

Melting suggest 1337.33 K (1064.18 °C)
Boiling allude 3129 K (2856 °C)
critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting point N/A

Enthalpies of Gold

warm of fusion 12.5 kJ/mol
warm of Vaporization 330 kJ/mol
warmth of combustion N/A

Gold isotopes - nuclear Properties of gold

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally developing Gold has actually 1 stable isotope - 197Au.


Isotope Isotope fixed % variety T fifty percent Decay mode
169Au
170Au
171Au
172Au
173Au
174Au
175Au
176Au
177Au
178Au
179Au
180Au
181Au
182Au
183Au
184Au
185Au
186Au
187Au
188Au
189Au
190Au
191Au
192Au
193Au
194Au
195Au
196Au
197Au 100% stable N/A
198Au
199Au
200Au
201Au
202Au
203Au
204Au
205Au

Regulatory and also Health - Health and Safety Parameters and also Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-57-5
RTECS Number RTECSMD5070000
period Hazard class N/A
dot Numbers N/A
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA perils N/A
NFPA health and wellness Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition suggest N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

perform of distinctive identifiers to find the element in miscellaneous chemical it is registered databases

Database id number
CAS Number - chemistry Abstracts business (CAS) CAS7440-57-5
CID Number CID23985
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSMD5070000

Compare Gold v all Group 11 elements

gold vs Copper yellow vs silver- Gold vs Roentgenium

Compare Gold with all transition metal elements

gold vs Scandium gold vs Titanium yellow vs Vanadium gold vs Chromium gold vs Manganese yellow vs Iron yellow vs Cobalt yellow vs Nickel gold vs Copper yellow vs Zinc gold vs Yttrium yellow vs Zirconium yellow vs Niobium gold vs Molybdenum yellow vs Technetium yellow vs Ruthenium gold vs Rhodium yellow vs Palladium yellow vs silver- Gold vs Cadmium gold vs Hafnium yellow vs Tantalum gold vs Tungsten gold vs Rhenium yellow vs Osmium gold vs Iridium yellow vs Platinum yellow vs Mercury yellow vs Rutherfordium gold vs Dubnium gold vs Seaborgium yellow vs Bohrium yellow vs Hassium yellow vs Meitnerium gold vs Darmstadtium yellow vs Roentgenium yellow vs Copernicium