Most atoms perform not have eight electron in your valence electron shell. Some atoms have actually only a couple of electrons in their outer shell, while part atoms absence only one or two electrons to have an octet. In instances where an atom has three or fewer valence electrons, the atom may shed those valence electrons quite easily until what remains is a reduced shell that contains an octet. Atom that lose electrons get a positive charge as a resultbecause they room left v fewer negatively fee electrons to balance the confident charges the the protons in the nucleus. Positively charged ion are called cations. Most metals come to be cations as soon as they do ionic compounds.
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A neutral sodium atom is likely to attain an octet in that outermost shell by shedding its one valence electron.
The cation created in this way, Na+, is called the salt ion to identify it native the element. The outermost shell of the salt ion is the second electron shell, which has actually eight electron in it. The octet preeminence has been satisfied. Figure (PageIndex1) is a graphical explicate of this process.
The name for confident and negative ions space pronounced CAT-eye-ons and also ANN-eye-ons, respectively.
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In plenty of cases, elements that belong come the same team (vertical column) top top the routine table kind ions v the same charge due to the fact that they have the same number of valence electrons. Thus, the routine table becomes a tool for mental the charges on plenty of ions. Because that example, all ion made native alkali metals, the first column top top the routine table, have actually a 1+ charge. Ions made indigenous alkaline planet metals, the second group ~ above the regular table, have actually a 2+ charge. ~ above the other side the the periodic table, the next-to-last column, the halogens, type ions having actually a 1− charge. Number (PageIndex3) shows exactly how the fee on countless ions deserve to be guess by the ar of an facet on the regular table. Keep in mind the convention of very first writing the number and also then the sign on a ion through multiple charges. The barium cation is written Ba2+, no Ba+2.