Disclosure statement

Philip C. Almond does not work-related for, consult, very own shares in or receive resources from any agency or organization that would benefit from this article, and also has disclosed no appropriate affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

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Mohammed receiving his an initial revelation native the angel Gabriel. Miniature illustration on vellum native the book Jami’ al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din, published in Tabriz, Persia, 1307 CE. Wikimedia pictures

For Jews, God was fully revealed in the Torah (the very first five books of the Old Testament). The God of the Old testament was both great and evil. The went method beyond the an excellent when he told Abraham to offer his kid to God together a scorched sacrifice. He to be a warrior God who murdered the firstborn of Egypt and also drowned the military of Pharaoh. He approved Elijah’s slaughter of the 450 prophets that the ancient Canaanite God Baal.

Yet he was also a compassionate and also loving God, one that in the famous words that Psalm 23 in the publication of Psalms was a shepherd whose goodness and mercy supported his pendant all the work of their lives. He loved Israel favor a father loves his son.

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Hans Meling, Christ giving His Blessing (1478). Wikimedia pictures

The God the Jesus in the four Gospels in the new Testament had a an in similar way ambiguous character. Top top the one hand, Jesus spoke of a an individual God, referring to him together “Father” in the prayer the he provided to his disciples. Yet, behind this God of tenderness and love, there continued to be a ruthless God of justice.

Like the prophets of the Old Testament, Jesus preached doom and also gloom. That was giving Israel its last chance and God would certainly be merciless come those who failed to heed his message. God would come in judgment at the finish of history. All would certainly then it is in resurrected. The fortunate couple of would receive eternal happiness, however the wicked majority would be actors into the eternal fires the hell.

So too, with the God of Muhammad. In ~ the finish of the world, God would certainly act as a God that justice. All the dead would be resurrected to receive God’s judgment. God would then reward or punish each human being in the gardens of paradise or the fires the hell follow to their deeds. Each would certainly be presented with a document of his deeds – in the best hand for those to it is in saved, in the left for those to it is in damned to the fires the hell.

For those who were saved, the delights of sky awaited. Those who passed away in the reason of Allah, however, walk not need to wait because that the last Judgment. They would certainly go right to heaven.

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The vital to salvation was above all surrender (“islam” in Arabic) come God, obedience come his commands as revealed in the Quran and allegiance to his messenger Muhammad. Choose the God of Moses, Allah to be a lawmaker. The Quran listed (often varied) guidance to the believing community in problem of marriage and family law, women, inheritance, food and drink, worship and purity, warfare, punishments because that adultery and also false accusations the adultery, alcohol and also theft. In short, it provided the foundation of what was later to be lot elaborated in sharia law.

Muslims, Christians and Jews execute all worship the same complicated God. Yet, in spite of this, all think that your religion contains the full and final revelation the the exact same God. Here is the beginning of your unity. Here likewise lies the reason of your division.

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For this belief in the reality of one religion and the falsity the the others leads to unpreventable conflict between the believer and also the unbeliever, the chosen and also the rejected, the saved and the damned. Here lie the seed of intolerance and violence.

So the God of Muhammad, favor the God of Jesus and also Moses, divides as lot as that unites, a reason of strife both between and also within these religions.