A file is a unit that data in the paper system the a user can access and manage. A record must have a distinctive name in the directory. It consists of one or more streams the bytes that hold a collection of associated data, add to a set of qualities (also dubbed properties) that describe the record or the data in ~ the file. The creation time of a document is an example of a file attribute.

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When a record is created, one unnamed default currently is produced to store all data composed to the file while the is open. Friend can also create added streams in ~ the file. These additional streams are described as alternative streams. The following figure depicts a record with the default stream and two alternate streams.

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File features are not stored in the data streams v the paper data, however are save on computer elsewhere and managed through the operation system.

All paper system data, including the system bootstrap code and also directories, are stored by the NTFS record system in files. Other file systems save this details in decaying regions exterior to the file system. An advantage of save on computer this details in documents is the Windows have the right to locate, access, and also maintain the info easily. Other benefits are that each the these records may be safeguarded by a security descriptor and, in the situation of partial decaying corruption, they may be conveniently relocated come a safer part of the disk.

The basic storage unit of all supported file systems is a cluster, i m sorry is a group of sectors. This enables the record system to optimize the administration of disk data independently of the disk ar size collection by the hardware disk controller. If the disk to it is in administered is large and big amounts that data space moved and also organized in a solitary operation, the administrator can readjust the cluster dimension to accommodate this.

Windows manages files through document objects, paper handles, and file pointers.

For more information on document streams, see file Streams. For more information top top clusters, watch Clusters and also Extents. For an ext information on exactly how to access and manage files, see paper Management and file Management Reference.

In this section

TopicDescription
File StreamsIn the NTFS paper system, streams contain the data that is composed to a file, and also that gives an ext information around a paper than attributes and also properties.
File ObjectsFile objects role as the reasonable interface between kernel and also user-mode processes and also the paper data that resides on the physics disk.
File HandlesWhen a paper is opened by a process using the CreateFile function, a file handle is linked with it till either the procedure terminates or the take care of is closed making use of the CloseHandle function.
File PointersA paper pointer is a 64-bit offset value that mentions the following byte come be check out or the ar to obtain the following byte written.

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Clusters and also ExtentsClusters may be described from two various perspectives: within the file and ~ above the volume.